Teacher Professional Development

1.2 Barriers to Learning CCP Training Highlights JHS1-SHS1

At the end of this section you will be able to

explain the importance of knowing your learners,

Identify various barriers to learning

Discuss ways of reducing barriers to learning

ensure inclusive learning


Knowing your Learner

Who are your learners and what are the barriers to their learning

why is it important to know your learners


Benefits of Knowing your Learners

  1. Create a psychologically safe environment for every learner. Good rapport and trust between teacher and learners; learner and learner
  2. Determine each learner’s readiness for learning. Teachers who know their learners are able to make informed decisions and judgement about their readiness to learn
  3. Identify multiple access points to the curriculum to increase engagement and access point. Knowing the learners strength, weakness and interest affords teachers the opportunity to use varied strategies to meet the needs of every learner.
  4. Develop and demonstrate greater emotional intelligence in the classroom . Knowing your learners helps the teachers to emphasis with them.

Barriers to learning


Perceived Barriers ” Child as the problem

From a Particular ethnic group

Has an impairment

from a poor home

cannot follow instructions

Not accepted by others

needs special equipment and a special teacher




Systematic Barriers

  1. Poor  infrastructure for learning ; Inaccessible to children with disability, Large class size
  2. School Curriculum ; Too rigid, Not adaptive to different learning styles., Diversity biased materials
  3. Teacher Training ; Lack of skills in inclusive educational strategies, Negative attitudes towards children with additional learning needs, Unconscious biases about diverse learners
  4. Lack of Parental involvement; Ineffective PTAs, Lack of knowledge and awareness of children’s learning needs

Inclusive Education

‘Inclusive Education is seen as a process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing exclusion within and from education’ UNESCO.

It involves changes and modification in content, approaches, structures and strategies, with a common vision which covers all children of the appropriate age range and conviction that it is the responsibility of regular system to educate all children.

Becoming an Inclusive Teacher

How do you ensure inclusive learning?

Application of universal design for learning  (UDL)

Differentiated instruction

Universal Design for Learning

An approach that instructors can use to reduce barriers that learners face in learning situations and increase access to opportunity to succeed.

a way of thinking about teaching and learning that helps give students an equal opportunity to succeed

This approach offers flexibility in the ways students access material, engage with it and show what they know.

developing lesson plans this way helps all kids, but it may be especially helful for kids with learning and thinking differences.

Universal Design for learning

Multiple means of

Engagement; to tap into learner’s interest, offer appropriate challenges and increase motivation.

Representation; to give learners various ways pf acquiring information and knowledge.

Action and expression; to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know.


Differentiated Instructions.

Differentiation means tailoring instructions to meet individual needs.

Instructions that provides multiple path so that learners of different abilities, interest, or learning needs experience equally appropriate ways to learn.

factors to consider in differentiation

  1. Content
  2. Process
  3. Products
  4. Learning environment.





Peter N. Djangmah is a multifaceted individual with a passion for education, entrepreneurship, and blogging. With a firm belief in the power of digital education and science, I am affectionately known as the Private Minister of Information. Connect with me
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