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SCHOOL OF PHARMACY
1.0 STUDENTS’ ADMISSION, PROGRESSION AND GRADUATION 1.1 GENERAL REGULATIONS
1.1.1 The University runs a modular course structure. Under this structure, the University’s academic programme has been organized into a semester system, and instruction takes the form of courses evaluated in terms of credits. Units of courses are examinable at the end of every semester and, if passed, a student shall earn credit(s) for the Units. The courses are coded and arranged in progressive order of difficulty, or in levels of academic progression.
1.1.2 Each department shall provide detailed information about the structure of courses leading to the award of Bachelors’ degree.
1.1.3 It is the responsibility of each student admitted to the University of Ghana, to be familiar with the specific requirements of the degree as well as the rules, regulations and policies of the University.
1.1.4 Each student is responsible for ensuring that the courses in which registration is effected satisfy the programme requirements of the Bachelor’s degree sought; advice and/or counselling for all who need assistance is freely available.
1.1.5 It is also understood that every student, by the act of registering, agrees to abide by all rules, regulations and policies of the University of Ghana and of the Faculties or Departments in which that student is registered.
1.1.6 Each student is expected to be familiar with the General Information outlined in this Handbook as well as the information pertaining to the School of Pharmacy. Students shall therefore be held liable for any lapses. When in doubt, students may consult their Heads of Department in writing with a copy to the Dean asking that advice be given in writing.
1.1.7 Exemption from any of these General Regulations may be granted only by the express permission of the Academic Board on the recommendation of the Board of the School of Pharmacy.
1.1.8 The University reserves the right to change rules, regulations and policies, as well as programme and course requirements given in this Handbook without prior notice.
1.2 ADMISSION TO THE SCHOOL OF PHARMACY
1.2.1 Further to the General Regulations regarding admission into the University of Ghana, admission to the School of Pharmacy for the B. Pharm Programme shall be direct into Level 100
- From the Senior Secondary School (using the WASSSE results) and must meet the following requirements: i. Core subjects
- Passes in three subjects, namely, English, Mathematics and Integrated Science
- Additionally, candidates shall be required to pass core Social Studies at least at Grade E.
- Elective subjects
Passes in three Elective Subjects shall be required namely Biology, Chemistry and either Physics or Mathematics.
- Other qualifications include International Baccalaureate (IB), International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE), General Certificate of Education (GCSE), the American Grades 12 and 13 examinations and other external qualifications which have equivalencies to the Senior Secondary School Certificate of Education (SSSCE) and the General Certificate of Education (GCE).
1.3.1 ACADEMIC YEAR / STRUCTURE
1.3.1 The Academic Session shall comprise two semesters.
1.3.2 Duration of Semester
A semester shall be of 17 weeks duration and be structured as follows:
14 weeks of Teaching 1 week of Revision
2 weeks of Examinations.
1.4 DEFINITION OF COURSE UNIT
A course unit shall be defined as follows:
- One-hour lecture = 1 Unit
- One-hour tutorial = 1 Unit
- One, two/three-hour practical session = 1 Unit
1.5 DEFINITION OF COURSE CREDIT
A credit shall be defined as follows:
- One-hour lecture or tutorial/week/semester
- One two/three-hour practical/week/semester.
1.6 GRADING SYSTEM FOR COURSES & SUBJECTS
1.6.1 Student performance in a subject/course shall be graded as follows:
|80 – 100
|75 – 79
|70 – 74
|65 – 69
|60 – 64
|55 – 59
|50 – 54
|0 – 44
Note: *Although this is a failure grade, it may still be accepted as fulfilling prerequisite for other courses.
1.6.2 Grade Point (GP): Each grade is assigned an equivalent grade point as indicated above. The number of (grade) points earned by a student, for each course completed, is computed as the product of the number of credits for the course and the grade point equivalent of the grade obtained in that course.
1.6.3 Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA): The student’s cumulative grade point average is calculated by dividing the total number of grade points obtained, up to any specified time, by the total number of credits of all courses for which the student has registered up to that time.
1.6.4 Final Grade Point Average (FGPA): The FGPA is the CGPA for all courses under consideration
calculated up to the end of a student’s academic programme.
1.7 DEFINITION OF GRADES
1.7.1 Pass Grades: Grades A to D+ (not less than 1.5 GPA) constitute Pass grades in a course and also a subject.
1.7.2 Failure Grades: Grades D, E, F, X, Z constitute Failure grades in a course and also in a subject.
1.7.3 Continuing: A grade Y, denoting Continuing shall be awarded at the end of a semester to any student who is taking a course, which continues into the next semester.
1.7.4 Non-Completion of Course:
- A grade I, denoting Incomplete, shall be awarded to a student who is unable to complete a course for reasons adjudged by the Board of Examiners as satisfactory. Such a student shall be expected to complete the course the very next time the course is available.
- A grade X shall be awarded to a student who is unable to complete a course for reasons adjudged by the Board of Examiners as unsatisfactory.
- A grade Z denotes Disqualification from an examination as a result of an examination malpractice or offence, and shall be awarded whenever it is established that a candidate had attempted to gain an unfair advantage in an examination, be it in a Principal subject or an Ancillary or any other paper.
- A candidate awarded a grade Z may be debarred from taking a University Examination for a stated period, or indefinitely, or may be expelled from the University.
- A grade Z may be awarded only by the Board of Examiners.
1.7.6 Student in Good Standing
A student in good standing shall be one whose Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is at least 1.50 (Grade D+).
1.8 DEFINITION OF COURSES AND SUBJECTS
1.8.1 Core Pharmacy Course
A core pharmacy course is any course in a pharmaceutical discipline that is offered as part of the B.Pharm programme.
1.8.2 Non-Pharmacy Course
A non-pharmacy course is a course in a non-pharmaceutical discipline that is offered a part of the B.Pharm programme.
The non-pharmacy courses currently offered in the B.Pharm programme are:
PHAR 121 Mathematics for Pharmacy I
PHAR 122 Mathematics for Pharmacy II
PHAR 141 Human Anatomy and Physiology
PHAR 143 Human Anatomy and Physiology (Practical)
PHAR 142 Basic Biochemistry
PHAR 144 Basic Biochemistry (Practical)
PHAR 151 Computer Literacy I
PHAR 152 Computer Literacy II
PHAR 251 Biostatistics
PHAR 253 Entrepreneurial Skills (Practicals)
UGRC 110 Academic Writing I
UGRC 150 Critical Thinking and Practical Reasoning
UGRC 210 Academic Writing II
UGRC 220-238 Introduction to African Studies
1.8.3. Core Pharmacy Subject
All core pharmacy courses in a particular pharmaceutical subject area shall constitute a subject in pharmacy.
The core pharmacy subjects currently offered in the B.Pharm Programme are:
- General Chemistry: PHAR 111; PHAR 112; PHAR 113; PHAR 114
- Principles of Pharmacy: PHAR 123; PHAR 125
- Pharmaceutical Microbiology I: PHAR 124; PHAR 126
- Pharmacognosy: PHAR 131; PHAR 133
- Behavioural Pharmacy: PHAR 153; PHAR 154
- Organic/Medicinal Chemistry I: PHAR 211; PHAR 212; PHAR 213; PHAR 214
- Pharmaceutical Microbiology II: PHAR 221; PHAR 223
- Physical Pharmacy: PHAR 222; PHAR 224
- Drugs of Plant Origin I: PHAR 232; PHAR 232
- General/Autonomic Pharmacology: PHAR 241; PHAR 242; PHAR 243; PHAR 244
- Biostatistics & Pharmacoepidemiology: PHAR 251
- Chemical Pathology: PHAR 252; PHAR 254
- Drug Analysis: PHAR 311; PHAR 313
- Medicinal Chemistry II: PHAR 312; PHAR 314
- Pharmaceutical Technology: PHAR 321; PHAR 323
- Principles of Immunology: PHAR 322; PHAR 324
- Drugs of Plant Origin II: PHAR 331; PHAR 333
- Endocrine & Immunopharmacology: PHAR 341; PHAR 343
- Systems Pharmacology I & Toxicology: PHAR 342; PHAR 344; PHAR 346
- Clinical Pharmacy: PHAR 351; PHAR 353
- Pharmacy Practice: PHAR 352; PHAR 354
- Drug Quality Assurance: PHAR 411; PHAR 412
- Applied Pharmaceutics & Immunology: PHAR 421; PHAR 422
- Phytotherapy & Herbal Medicine: PHAR 431; PHAR 432
- Systems Pharmacology II & Chemotherapy: PHAR 441; PHAR 442
- Pharmacotherapy & Disease Management: PHAR 451; PHAR 452
- Final Year Project: PHAR 410; PHAR 420; PHAR 430; PHAR 440; PHAR 450
1.8.4 Non-Pharmacy Subject
All non-pharmacy courses in non-pharmacy but related disciplines shall constitute subjects in a non-pharmacy category.
Non-pharmacy subjects currently offered in the B.Pharm programme are:
- Mathematics for Pharmacy : PHAR 121 and PHAR 122
- Human Anatomy and Physiology : PHAR 141 and PHAR 143
- Basic Biochemistry : PHAR 142 and PHAR 144
- Computer Literacy : PHAR 151 and PHAR 152
- Biostatistics and Entrepreneurial Skills: PHAR 251 and PHAR 253
- Academic Writing : UGRC 110 and UGRC 210
- Social Studies: UGRC 150 and UGRC 220-238
1.9. PROBATION AND WITHDRAWAL
- 9.1 A student who fails to obtain a grade point average of 1.50 (55%) in a subject shall be eligible for the Supplementary Examinations.
1.9.2 A student who fails to obtain the requisite pass in a subject after the Supplementary Examinations shall be asked by the Dean to repeat the year and the course, provided that not less than 2 courses shall be taken in the repeated year.
1.9.3 A student who fails to obtain the requisite pass in the subject after repeating the year shall be asked by the Dean to withdraw from the School of Pharmacy.
1.9.4 A student can proceed to the next stage of the programme if and only if he/she has passed all the courses of the preceding level, or has failed not more than one course.
2.0 B.PHARM DEGREE PROGRAMME 2.1 DURATION OF PROGRAMME
2.1.1 The minimum period for the B.Pharm Degree shall be 8 semesters and the maximum period shall be 12 semesters. These minimum and maximum periods are calculated from the date of first registration.
2.1.2 A candidate who is unable to complete his/her programme within the maximum period allowed shall lose all credits accumulated. Such a candidate shall not be allowed to re-apply for admission into the B.Pharm degree programme.
2.2 INTERRUPTION OF STUDY PROGRAMME
2.2.1 A student may break his/her study programme but may not break for more than 4 continuous semesters, so however that the maximum period allowable for the completion of the programme is not exceeded. Such a student shall be allowed to continue the programme from where he/she had left off.
2.2.2 A student who wishes to interrupt his/her course of study shall apply in advance to the Dean of the School of Pharmacy, stating reasons why he/she wants to interrupt his/her study programme, and permission duly granted before he/she leaves the University. The decision of the Dean shall be communicated to the applicant before he/she leaves the University.
2.2.3 A student who breaks his/her studies for more than 4 continuous semesters shall be deemed to have lost any accumulated credits. Such a student may be allowed to re-apply for admission to the School of Pharmacy.
2.2.4 Where the ground for interruption of studies is medical, the Head of the Medical School Clinic/Director of Health Services, University of Ghana shall be required to advise the Dean on the propriety and length of period of interruption. The Dean shall cause the Head of the Medical School Clinic to investigate any medical report reaching his office from any health delivery facility outside the Medical School Clinic/University Hospital and advise accordingly.
2.3 SCHEME OF EXAMINATION FOR B.PHARM DEGREE
2.3.1 A final (end-of-semester) examination shall normally be required as a part of every course. An examination schedule showing time and place of examination for each course shall be published each semester.
2.3.2 The marks obtained in the end-of-semester examination shall contribute 70% of the grade for the course while continuous assessment shall contribute the remaining 30% (except for practicals or other courses which may be assessed entirely by continuous assessment).
2.3.3 Time allotted to examination papers shall be as follows:
1-Credit Course – 1 hour
2-Credit Course – 2 hours
3-or more Credit Course – 2 to 3 hours.
2.4 ELIGIBILITY FOR EXAMINATIONS
2.4.1 A student shall attend all such lectures, tutorials, seminars and practicals and undertake all other assignments as approved by the University.
2.4.2 Each Department shall, with the approval of the Academic Board, determine the requirements for the subjects they offer.
2.4.3 Further to 2.4.1 above, a student shall attend lectures, tutorials, practicals and other activities prescribed for the courses/subjects for which he/she has registered, and execute all assignments given.
2.4.4 A student who does not fulfill the requirements for any course/subject shall not be allowed to take the examination for that course/subject.
2.4.5 In any case, a student who is absent for a cumulative period of 21 days from all lectures, tutorials, practicals and other activities prescribed for any subject in any semester shall be deemed to have withdrawn from the course/subject. Such a student shall not be permitted to sit for the semester examination.
2.5 REGISTRATION FOR EXAMINATIONS
2.5.1 Registration for a School of Pharmacy Examination shall require endorsement of the Registration Form by the Head of Department to the effect that the candidate has pursued satisfactorily the approved course(s) of study being offered over the prescribed period, and has attended at least 85% of lectures, tutorials, practicals and other activities prescribed for the course(s)/subjects. A candidate’s registration shall not be valid unless it is so endorsed.
2.5.2 Endorsement as in (2.5.1) above shall be withheld if a candidate is not deemed to have followed satisfactorily the approved course of study (as in Section 2.4).
2.5.3 In any event of the withholding of an endorsement, the Head of Department shall request the confirmation by the Board of the School of Pharmacy.
2.6 SUPPLEMENTARY EXAMINATIONS
2.6.1 The Examiners’ Board shall decide whether a student who fails in any course shall be allowed to rewrite the examination in the failed course as a Supplementary Examination (to be held in the Long Vacation). If he/she re-writes and passes that examination, he/she shall be awarded the full grade earned on that occasion. The student’s transcript will show the number of occasions the candidate took the examination for that particular course and the grades earned on all such occasions.
2.6.2 Supplementary Examinations shall not include continuous assessment marks.
2.6.3 Supplementary Examinations shall be held six weeks after the main examination.
2.6.4 A student shall be allowed to take not more than 5 courses in all subject areas at any one time as the Supplementary Examinations.
2.6.5 A student who would be required to re-write University Examinations in more than 5 courses in all the subject areas shall repeat the year.
2.6.6 See also Regulation 1.9 (Probation and Withdrawal)
2.7 Deferment of Examination
2.7.1 On Grounds of Ill-Health: A student who has satisfied all the requirements as specified in Section 2.5, but is unable to take the main (end of semester) examination on grounds of ill health, shall, on application to the Dean, and on provision of a Medical Certificate issued or endorsed by the Head of the Medical School Clinic/Director of Health Services, Legon, be allowed to take supplementary examination as his/her main examination. He/she shall be credited with the grade obtained in the supplementary examination.
2.7.2 Subsequent application for deferment, on grounds of ill-health, shall be subject to a Medical Certificate issued by a properly constituted Medical Board.
2.7.3 On Grounds other than Ill-Health: In cases of deferment on grounds other than ill-health, the Dean of the School of Pharmacy shall invite the applicant for interview. It shall be the student’s responsibility to satisfy the School of Pharmacy beyond reasonable doubt why he/she wishes to defer the examinations.
2.7.4 In all cases of deferment of examinations, the applicant(s) shall obtain written responses from the Dean before leaving the School.
2.8 EXAMINERS’ BOARD
2.8.1 There shall be Examiners’ Board for the main and supplementary examinations which shall comprise the following:
Dean – Chairman
Heads of Department
Internal Examiners for the various courses
Senior Assistant Registrar (AA) – Secretary
2.8.2 Examiners’ Board shall receive, consider and determine the results of the respective examinations.
2.8.3 The Board shall be required to make appropriate recommendations on any candidate based on his/her performance and also on any aspect of the examination as it deems fit.
3.0 DECLARATION OF RESULTS
3.1 Results of semester examinations, taken at the end of each semester shall normally be published by the Dean on the School Notice Board before the commencement of the next semester.
3.2 A results slip indicating the student’s performance in the examination shall be made available to the student.
3.3 ELIGIBILITY FOR THE B.PHARM DEGREE
3.3.1 The B.Pharm degree shall be awarded to a candidate who has been properly admitted to the University, has followed the approved courses of study over the prescribed period and has satisfied the conditions as stated in Regulations 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 below.
3.3.2 UNIVERSITY REQUIREMENTS
- Evidence of regular enrolment in the degree programme
- Discharge of all obligations owed to the University
- A pass in all University required courses
- Satisfactory performance in the appropriate University Examinations.
3.3.3 FACULTY/DEPARTMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
Satisfactory discharge of such requirements as may be prescribed for the degree.
3.3.4 REQUIREMENTS FOR GRADUATION
126.96.36.199 A candidate shall be deemed to have:
- Satisfied all General University and Faculty requirements;
- Obtained at least 55% in each course featured in the examinations;
3.4 CONFIRMATION OF AWARD OF DEGREE
3.4.1 A list of candidates who are deemed eligible as in Regulations 3.3 and 3.4 shall be laid before the Academic Board of the University for approval as soon as practicable.
3.4.2 No award shall be confirmed unless the Academic Board of the University is satisfied that the candidate has satisfied all the conditions for the award of a degree.
3.5 CANCELLATION OF AWARD
3.5.1 Notwithstanding previous confirmation of an award of a degree as in Regulation 3.4, the Academic Board of the University may at any time cancel an award even with retrospective effect if it becomes known that:
- A candidate has entered the University with false qualifications
- A candidate has impersonated someone else
- A candidate has been guilty of examination malpractice for which a grade Z would have been awarded
There are other reasons that would have led to the withholding of confirmation of the award in the first place.
1.5.2 In any such event, the decision of the Academic Board of the University shall be published on the University Notice Boards and the candidate notified. Such cancellation and the reasons for it shall be entered on the candidate’s transcript.
3.6 TRANSCRIPT OF ACADEMIC RECORD
At the end of a student’s programme, the University shall, on the payment of an appropriate fee, issue to the particular student a complete transcript of his/her academic record. This transcript shall be marked Student’s Copy and shall record all courses attempted and all results obtained.
3.7 CLASSIFICATION OF DEGREE
The end-of-semester examination results from Level 100 except specified University and Faculty required courses shall be taken into account in the computation of the Final Grade Point Averages (FGPA) for the classification of the bachelor’s degree.
3.7.1 The GPA at Levels 100, 200, 300 and 400 shall be weighted in the proportions 1:2:2:2.
3.7.2 In the determination of the FGPA, a weighted average of all repeat courses shall be used, as for
instance, a 3-credit course with a ‘D’ at first attempt and an ‘A’ at the second attempt shall attract a total of 6 credits in the computation of the grade Point Average of that particular course.
3.7.3 The FGPA for FIRST CLASS shall be 3.60 or better.
3.7.4 The full scheme of classification shall read as follows:
First Class – FGPA of 3.60 or better
Second Class (Upper) – FGPA of 3.25 – 3.59
Second Class (Lower) – FGPA of 2.50 – 3.24
Pass – FGPA of 1.50 – 2.49
Fail – FGPA of below 1.50
3.7.5 University and Faculty required courses shall continue to remain ancillary subjects and a pass in every subject shall be required by all undergraduate degree students for the award of a Bachelor’s degree; marks obtained shall be entered on the student’s transcript, but shall not count towards the classification of the degree.
3.8 UNIVERSITY OF GHANA REQUIRED COURSES
- Academic Writing I & II (UGRC 110 & UGRC 210)
- Critical Thinking and Practical Reasoning (UGRC 150)
- Introduction to African Studies (UGRC 220-238)
3.9 SCHOOL REQUIRED SUBJECTS
- i) Mathematics for Pharmacy ii) Human Anatomy and Physiology
- Basic Biochemistry
- Computer Literacy.
- NAME OF AWARDING INSTITUTION
University of Ghana
- NAME OF DEGREE
Bachelor of Pharmacy (Honours) degree
3.12 ELIGIBILITY FOR POSTGRADUATE DEGREES
3.12.1 Eligibility for Pharm.D, MPhil and PhD degrees shall be determined when the Departments are fully operational.
4.0 EMPLOYMENT PROSPECTS OF STUDENTS
The Pharmacy programme is structured to ensure that upon successful completion the graduates from the School will satisfy the current requirement of the Pharmacy Council of Ghana for entry into the pre-registration training programme for registration as pharmacists in Ghana. They will thus be eligible to practice as clinical pharmacists, community pharmacists, regulatory pharmacists, industrial pharmacists or, after appropriate post-graduate training, as pharmaceutical scientists in academia and research establishments.
5.0 CURRICULA OF COURSES
In developing the curricula and syllabuses for the School the aims and objectives of academic programmes of the School were established.
The purpose of the degree programmes of the School of Pharmacy is to produce pharmacy graduates who:
- Are committed to life-long learning
- Having a sufficient understanding of the principles and techniques of pharmaceutical sciences (and after appropriate internship) are able to communicate and deliver pharmaceutical care in the community and hospital settings;
- Are able to take professional responsibility in pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture and testing of medicinal products
- Are able, after appropriate postgraduate training, to pursue careers in academia and research establishments.
Special attention is focused on the development of skills that will enable the graduate to produce therapeutic substances of plant origin. This is intended to accelerate the scientific development of herbal medicine in Ghana.
At graduation the student will:
- Understand how medicines are developed, manufactured and made available for pharmaceutical care
- Have a basic understanding of medicine formulation and the capability to prepare extemporaneously any medicine for which this would be regarded as the normal means of provision of pharmaceutical care
- Be able to supply medicines in accordance with pharmaceutical knowledge, legislation and codes of professional conduct and practice
- Have sufficient academic knowledge to interpret and evaluate prescriptions and other orders for medicines and to underpin a role in advising patients and other health care professionals about medicines and their usage
- Be able to recognize common disease states and make appropriate interventions to presented symptoms
- Have an appreciation of the principles of medicinal products, quality assessment and quality assurance mechanisms in all aspects of scientific and professional activities
- Have an appreciation of research methodologies relevant to natural, clinical and social sciences.
6.0 COURSE MODULES 6.1 LEVEL 100: YEAR ONE SEMESTER 1
|General Chemistry I
|General Chemistry I (Practical)
|Mathematics for Pharmacy I
|Introduction to Principles of Pharmacy
|Principles of Pharmacy (Practical)
|Human Anatomy & Physiology
|Human Anatomy & Physiology (Practical)
|Computer Literacy I
|Orientation to Pharmacy
|Academic Writing I
TOTAL CREDITS 21 SEMESTER 2
|Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry I
|Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry (Practical)
|Mathematics for Pharmacy II
|Pharmaceutical Microbiology I
|Pharmaceutical Microbiology I (Practical)
|Basic Biochemistry (Practical)
|Computer Literacy II
|Psychology & Behavioural Science
|Critical Thinking and Practical Reasoning
TOTAL CREDITS 19
6.2 LEVEL 200 YEAR TWO SEMESTER 3
|Physical/analytical Chemistry (Practical)
|Pharmaceutical Microbiology II
|Pharmaceutical Microbiology II (Practical)
|General Principles of Pharmacology
|General Principles of Pharmacology (Practical)
|Entrepreneurial Skills (Practical)
|Academic Writing II
TOTAL CREDITS 18 SEMESTER 4
|Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry II
|Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry II (Practical)
|Physical Pharmacy (Practical)
|Autonomic Pharmacology (Practical)
|Chemical Pathology (Practical)
|Introduction to African Studies
TOTAL CREDITS 21
6.3 LEVEL 300: YEAR THREE SEMESTER 5
|Medicinal Chemistry I
|Medicinal Chemistry I (Practical)
|Pharmaceutical Technology (Practical)
|Natural Drug Production and Evaluation
|Natural Drug Production and Evaluation (Practical)
|Endocrine and Immunopharmacology
|Experimental Pharmacology I (In vitro, Practical)
|Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability
|Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics
|Drug / Spectroscopic analysis
|Drug / Spectroscopic analysis (Practical)
|Principles of Immunology
|Principles of Immunology (Practical)
|Systems Pharmacology I
|Principles of Toxicology
|Experimental Pharmacology II (In vivo, Practical)
|Social and Behavioural Pharmacy
|Community Pharmacy Practice (Practical)
|6.4 LEVEL 400: YEAR FOUR
|COURSE COURSE TITLE CODE
|PHAR 410 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Project
|PHAR 411 Medicinal Chemistry II
|PHAR 420 Pharmaceutics Project
|PHAR 421 Applied Immunology
|PHAR 423 Principles of Pharmaceutics
|PHAR 430 Pharmacognosy/Herbal Medicine Project
|PHAR 431 Plant Poisons and Pesticides
|PHAR 440 Pharmacology Project
|PHAR 441 Systems Pharmacology II
|PHAR 450 Pharmacy Practice Project
|PHAR 451 Pharmacotherapy and Disease Management
* Students are eligible to select only one project
|Pharmaceutical Chemistry Project
|Drug Design, Development and Quality Assurance
|Pharmacognosy/Herbal Medicine Project
|Advances in Phytotherapy and Herbal Medicine
|Chemotherapy and Anti-infective Agents
|Pharmacy Practice Project
|Patient Treatment Assessment
TOTAL CREDITS 14 Add 6 Credits for Project 20 7.0 COURSE DESCRIPTIONS (B. PHARM)
7.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry PHAR 111 General Chemistry I (3 Credits)
Students will be expected to appreciate the relevance of chemistry to pharmacy practice with focus on chemical structure, bonding and shape (classical model of the atom), Bohr’s models, quantum mechanics and Schrödinger equation, relation to atomic structure, Aufbau, Hund’s and Pauli’s exclusion principles: MO and VB approaches to bonding, shapes of atomic and molecular orbitals and Hybridization of atomic orbitals. The Periodic Table, Equilibria in Electrolytes, Acids and Bases, Buffers, Handerson – Hasselberg equation. Topics in bio-inorganic chemistry will include metals in the body, electrolytes and transition metals-roles in biological functions, identification, assay and uses of metals in pharmacy. Organic chemistry will cover introductory aspects of organic chemistry and alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes with a focus on nomenclature, structures, preparations, reactions, tautomerism and acidity.
PHAR 113 General Chemistry Practical (1 Credit)
Students will develop the ability to identify laboratory equipment. The course will enable students to develop practical skills for the preparation of stock solutions, weighing techniques and calibration of a burette, perform basic volumetric analysis, acid/base, double indicator and back titrations, redox titrations, permanganate and iodine/thiosulphate titration and complexometric titrations.
PHAR 112 Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry I (3 Credits)
In this course students will acquire the ability to classify organic compounds into groups, predict their chemical and physical properties, method of synthesis, the reactions they under and their significance to pharmacy and medicine. Functional group Chemistry including; Benzene and its aromaticity, Arenes: Organometallic compounds including Grignard reagents and the reactions, Alcohols, Alkyl halides: preparation and reactions; Aryl halides: Glycols: Ethers and epoxides, Aldehydes and ketones, their properties, preparation and reactions; Carboxylic acids; Amines; Diazonium salts;
PHAR 114 Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry Practical (1 Credit)
Students will acquire practical skills for basic techniques in simple synthesis, basic and limit tests, determination of melting points and boiling points, recrystallization, solvent extraction and reduced pressure evaporation.
PHAR 211 Physical/Analytical Chemistry (3 Credits)
Appreciation of physical chemistry/ reaction kinetic concepts:- reaction rates, order of reactions and apply these concepts to drug stability in pharmaceutical formulations and other relevant pharmaceutical systems. Characteristics of weak acids, bases, their salts, amino acids, buffer solutions. Polarimetry and Refractometry. Electrolytic conduction. Electromotive Force. Polarography and Amperometry, Arrhenius’ and Eyring’s equation, theory of rate process. Thermodynamics: First and Second Laws, Thermochemistry, Enthalpy, Entropy, Free Energy. Introduction to chromatography; Introduction to spectroscopy: Light absorption and the use of filters to select various types of light; the electromagnetic spectrum and its separation.
PHAR 213 Physical Chemistry Practical (1 Credit)
In this course the student will be trained to use basic laboratory equipment such as polarimeter, conductimeter and refractometer. By the application of physical chemistry principles the student will be enabled to identify and analyse given compounds and solutions.
PHAR 212 Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry II (3 Credits)
Students will be exposed to the Chemistry of Biologically important macromolecules and their interactions. Review of functional group Chemistry, Dicarboxylic acids, Condensation polymerization, Keto acids and esters, Hydroxy acids, lactides, lactones, Stereochemistry, Optical isomerism; Heterocyclic compounds (Pyrrole, Furan, Thiophene, Pyridine Fused ring heterocyclics including Quinoline, isoquinoline, purines etc), properties, synthesis and their reaction Alicyclic compounds and
Carbohydrates, Amino acids, peptides proteins including 1o, 2o, 3o & 4o structures and their synthesis, Nucleosides, nucleotides and Nucleic acids including RNA, DNA, their replication and protein biosynthesis.
PHAR 214 Organic Pharm. Chemistry II Practical (1 Credit)
In this course students will develop the practical ability to carry out synthesis, extraction, purification and re-crystallization to obtain pure compounds. Volumetric analysis of organic compounds and related pharmaceuticals. Determination of elements and functional groups in organic compounds.
PHAR 311 Medicinal Chemistry I (3 credits)
Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry. Physicochemical principles of drug action. Drug metabolism including bio-transformation and conjugation, mechanisms and therapeutic significance. The Pharmacodynamic and miscellaneous agents to be encountered in this course will include Analgesics (Narcotic and non-narcotics), antipyretics, anti-tussives; central nervous system depressants; psychotherapeutic agents; drugs acting on the cardiovascular, renal and haematopoietic systems; hormonal and related drugs e.g. steroids, peptides, phospholipid metabolites; autonomic nervous system agonists and antagonists; Neurotransmitters in the adrenergic and cholinergic systems.
PHAR 313 Medicinal Chemistry I Practical (1 Credit)
The practical skills acquired in course PHAR 214 will be used for standardization of selected solutions; iodimetric assay of penicillin by the BP method; Assay of selected drugs by BP methods; synthesis, purification and analysis of selected drugs and pharmaceutical products.
PHAR 312 Drug /Spectroscopic analysis (4 Credits)
Introduction to spectroscopy will cover spectroscopic methods of analysis and structural determination of drugs. Topics will include flame photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy; instrumentation, underlying processes and applications in the pharmaceutical industry; interpretation of spectra and identification of compounds using spectroscopic techniques. Techniques involving UV and Visible spectroscopy (including fluorimetry), Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Proton & Carbon 13 NMR, Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography will be considered. Correlation of these methods and techniques for structure elucidation will also be considered. Preparation of monographs. Chromatography in Pharmaceutical analysis (GLC and HPLC). Review of titrimetric methods for quality assurance of drugs. Non-aqueous titrations, acid/base titrations, oxidation-reduction titration etc.
PHAR 314 Drug Analysis Practical (1 Credit)
This course will enable students to assay, identify and estimate the purity of drugs and other pharmaceutical products using basic equipment like UV and IR spectrophotometers. Students will learn techniques involving titrimetric, gravimetric, potentiometric, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods of analysis of drugs.
PHAR 411 Medicinal Chemistry II (3 Credits)
Students will be required to demonstrate ability to relate chemistry of medicinal compounds to their physicochemical properties, structural features, stability, assay and mode of action. They will also be able to relate stereochemistry to biological activity. The course will provide approaches to synthesis of medicinal compounds and the chemistry of chemotherapeutic agents such as: antimalarials, trypanocides, antischistosomal agents, amoebicides, trichomonicides, leishmanicides, filaricides and anthelmintics. Also included are drugs acting against infectious diseases; commonly used antibiotics and related agents of clinical importance, antineoplastic and anti-viral agents.
PHAR 410 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Project (6 Credits)
In the final year of the B.Pharm degree programme students will be assigned one research project to be undertaken in both Semesters 7 and 8. The project will be designed to enable the students to demonstrate the scientific skills they have acquired in the preceding three years. A problem of relevance in pharmaceutical science or pharmacy practice which will require literature search, choice of appropriate methodology, experimental design and execution, data generation or collection, compilation, analysis and discussion of results using acceptable statistical methods will be assigned to students. Upon completion of the project, which will be carried out under the mentorship of an academic supervisor, the student will present a seminar and a final bound report for assessment.
PHAR 412 Drug Design, Development and Quality Assurance (4 Credits)
In this course, students will appreciate principles of drug development including drug design concepts; the significance of drug quality in pharmacotherapy. – (QSAR); appropriate formulation; case study illustration of design and development of specific drugs in selected class; theory and practice of quality assessment of drugs and pharmaceutical products – Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Assurance, Quality Control.; Laboratory methods -techniques;
7.2 Department of Pharmaceutics and Microbiology
PHAR 121 Mathematics for Pharmacy I (1 Credit)
This course will establish the relevance of mathematics in pharmacy. Application of mathematical concepts in pharmaceutical systems and phenomena will be made clear. The topic of differentiation will be treated and will cover- limits, definition, product, quotient, function of a function, implicit differentiation, stationary points, turning points, and points of inflection and as well as function sketching. The treatment of Logarithmic Plots will cover Exponential and logarithmic functions, semi-logarithmic and logarithmic plots. Integration Methods will discuss parts, algebraic substitution and partial fractions. First-order Rate Processes will cover the definition, different physical processes obeying the Law (e.g. radioactive decay, chemical reaction, microbial growth, and elementary pharmacokinetics), half-life and semi-logarithmic plots.
PHAR 122 Mathematics for Pharmacy II (Prerequisite PHAR 121) (1 Credit)
This course is designed to enable students appreciate the importance of mathematics and its application in the pharmacy. Discussions will cover zero, second and third-order reactions focusing on rate equations, their solutions and half-life. Discussions will include triangular charts such as graphical representation of three component systems; partial differentiation touching on functions of several variables, first and second partial derivatives, geometric interpretation. Partial differential equations, the unsteady state diffusion equations. Fick’s Law of Diffusion. Other topics will include integration with a focus on definite integrals, area under the curve, infinite limits, approximate integration methods (trapezoidal rule). Differential equations focusing on solution of ordinary differential equations by separation of variables and integrating factor methods will also be treated. .
PHAR 123 Introduction to Principles of Pharmacy (3 Credits)
This course will explain the fundamental principles of pharmacy as the procurement, storage and delivery of medicines in accordance with the ethics and laws of pharmacy practice. The course will provide students with the knowledge of the theory and practice of pharmacy by the following processes: Formulation, compounding and extemporaneous preparation of various dosage forms of medicines.
Dispensing and counselling in a comprehensive pharmaceutical care delivery system.
PHAR 124 Pharmaceutical Microbiology I (3 Credits)
This course will expose students to bacteriology, virology, mycology and parasitology. Bacteriology will cover the historical; classification and nomenclature; structure and function; culture media; growth requirements, dynamics of growth; mode of reproduction; simple identification procedures; Gram staining and important biochemical diagnostic methods. Virology will cover structure of a viruses, bacteriophage cultivation techniques; assays; mode of replication of animal virus and bacteriophage; virulent or avirulent form; lysogeny; transduction and recombination interference. Mycology will cover the basic principles; yeasts and moulds; morphological characteristics, growth requirements, multiplication and reproduction; isolation, cultivation and microscopic examination; and economic importance. Parasitology will focus on morphology, life cycles and classifications of human and animal parasites; parasite infections of humans e.g. nematodes, trematodes, cetodes and protozoa.
PHAR 125 Principles of Pharmacy Practical (1 Credit)
Introduction to dispensing prescriptions – labelling, sources of information, pharmaceutical compounding, posology and dosage calculations, pharmaceutical calculations, measurements and weighing. Pharmaceutical dosage forms; Routes of administration, Basic incompatibilities in dispensing; colouring and flavouring agents, pharmaceutical solvents, diluents, antioxidants and buffers, common waxes, oils and fats. Precision and accuracy in dispensing. Various calculations used in dispensing. Preparation of percentage solutions, aromatic solutions, mixtures, emulsions, suspensions, syrups, lotions creams and suppositories.
PHAR 126 Pharmaceutical Microbiology I Practical (1 Credit)
This course seeks to provide students with practical skills in microbiology through the following sources of micro-organisms: soil, atmosphere, water bodies, humans and pharmaceutical containers, etc. Microscopic examination of prepared slides – fungi, bacteria etc. Staining techniques: simple, differential (Gram) stain, spore and motility. Culture media; Liquid/Solid; aerobic/anaerobic media; routine and diagnostic media (include McIintosh Fields’ Jar, Anaerobic Jar). Isolation of micro-organisms: Serial dilution, pour plate, streaking, spreading etc. Bacterial and Fungal enumeration: Total count turbidometrics microscopic count, viable count, pour plate, roll tube, over dried (Miles and Misra) agar plate techniques. Statistical evaluation of counting techniques.
PHAR 221 Pharmaceutical Microbiology II (2 Credits)
This course will make students aware of the significance and implications of microbial contamination of pharmaceutical products and the need for disinfection and sterilization. Methods of Sterilization will cover dry heat; moist heat (autoclave-various types); Heating with a bactericide (HWAB); Filtration (various types); High efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA filters); Testing of filters. Gaseous sterilization, ethylene oxide sterilization. Radiation sterilization. Monitoring of sterilization efficiency by physical, chemical and bacteriological methods. The course will also cover Principles of Disinfection and discuss types of disinfectants; dynamics of disinfection; factors influencing efficiency of disinfection process; evaluation of disinfectant activity. The topic of Preservation will be covered and will cover the basic principles; types; reservation of sterile pharmaceutical products.
PHAR 222 Physical Pharmacy (3 Credits)
This course provides for an understanding of the physical concepts applicable to pharmacy.
The course deals with the following characteristics of matter pertaining to pharmacy:
States of Matter – liquid, solid, gaseous states, polymorphism, intermolecular forces such as phase equilibria and phase rule; surface and interfacial phenomena; liquid state (liquefaction of gases, aerosols, vapour pressure of liquid, boiling point); solid and crystalline state: crystalline solids, X-ray diffraction, polymorphism, crystallization, efflorescence. Solid and Liquid Equilibrium. Surface and Interfacial phenomenon -viscosity and rheology. Disperse Systems – Suspensions and emulsions will be covered in detail including stabilization processes. Reaction Kinetics and drug stability.
PHAR 223 Pharmaceutical Microbiology II Practical (1 Credit)
In this course, students will become familiar with the types of equipment used for sterilization and disinfection in formulation and manufacture of sterile pharmaceutical products. Students will acquire hands-on practical experience with the formulation and preparation of the following sterile pharmaceutical products: parenteral products, ophthalmic solutions, occulenta, (in single and multiple dose forms); surgical dressings. Students will learn aseptic techniques applicable to the preparation of thermolabile sterile products. Students will learn biochemical characteristics of micro-organisms; perform antibiotic sensitivity tests and sterility testing protocols.
PHAR 224 Physical Pharmacy Practical (1 Credit)
This course will provide students with an understanding of the practical aspects of the relevance of the following phenomena in pharmacy: Thermodynamics; solutions and phase Equilibria. Ionic solutions and Electrolytic Equilibria; Reaction kinetics; Disperse Systems and Rheology. Other areas which will be covered include degradation pathways of drug formulations and drug stability studies.
PHAR 321 Pharmaceutical Technology (3 Credits)
In this course students will learn the theoretical basis of processes employed in the pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture and quality assurance of pharmaceutical products. The course will cover good manufacturing practices in general, and specifically, the following processes: Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Testing; Separation; Packaging; Stability of products. Quality Assurance and Control. The following product types will also be considered: Solutions, Emulsions, suspensions, and Extractives; Powders; Oral solid dosage forms; coated dosage forms; sustained-release drug delivery systems.
PHAR 322 Principles of Immunology (3 Credits)
This course will provide an awareness of the immunological basis of disease and an understanding of immunotherapy as an aspect of pharmaceutical science. The course will involve a consideration of: the immune system-characteristics of antigens and antibodies, Humoral immunity, cellular immunity; Tumor immunology; Immunogenetics; Immunological deficiencies; Types of immunity and hypersensitivity reactions. Active Immunization: Vaccines, Toxoids. Passive Immunization: Human immune sera, Animal immune sera
PHAR 323 Pharmaceutical Technology Practical (1 Credit)
This course will enable students acquire practical skills necessary for small and medium scale manufacture of pharmaceutical products in the laboratory. In addition, students will be exposed to real industrial conditions of pharmaceutical product manufacture through supervised industrial attachments. Students will become familiar with various industrial equipment and obtain operational experience in their use. Students will be given practical manufacturing exercises to enable them develop competencies in pharmaceutical technology applicable to: Tableting, Capsuling, Rheology, Solubilisation, Particle size analysis, drug stability assessment etc.
PHAR 324 Principles of Immunology Practical (1 Credit)
In this course students will learn practical aspects of the production of immunopharmaceuticals. These will include: Biologic Immunogens for Active Immunity-vaccines and Toxoids; Biologic Immunogens for Passive Immunity-Human Immune Sera (Homologous Sera) and Animal Immune Sera (Heterologous
Sera). Students will also learn the clinical conditions for use and the criteria for storage of these products.
PHAR 420 Pharmaceutics Project (6 Credits)
This final year project will be designed to enable the students to demonstrate the scientific skills they have acquired in the preceding years. A problem of relevance in pharmaceutical science or pharmacy practice which will require literature search, choice of appropriate methodology, experimental design and execution, data generation or collection, compilation, analysis and discussion of results using acceptable statistical methods will be assigned to students. Upon completion of the project, which will be carried out under the mentorship of an academic supervisor, the student will present a seminar and a final bound report for assessment.
PHAR 421 Applied Immunology (3 Credits)
This course will highlight aspects of the applications of immunology in pharmacotherapy. Students will apply the basic principles of immunology studied in the previous years. Students will appreciate the immunological basis of the use of immunodiagnostic drugs, immunosuppressant drugs, immunostimulant drugs and immunoassay of drugs. The phenomenon of drug induced allergy will also be part of this course.
PHAR 423 Principles of Pharmaceutics (Prerequisite PHAR 123) (2 Credits)
In this course, the student will appreciate the principles of drug design as outlined in pre-formulation and formulation studies. The course will highlight various techniques in drug formulation studies including micro and nano-formulations, biotechnology, as well as methods of testing the quality of the formulations. The course will cover all dosage forms, and also consider medicated topical applications and aerosols.
7.3 Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine
PHAR 131 Pharmacognosy (2 Credits)
In this course students will study the following: Plant morphology, plant cell types and structure, organized cell inclusions, introductory taxonomy, isolation techniques for tissues and cells. In addition students will study the history and scope of pharmacognosy and classification of crude drugs. Students will appreciate the pharmacognostical features of powders of natural origin, fibres and surgical dressings, plant physiology, basic plant physiology, basic plant metabolism and secondary plant metabolites.
PHAR 133 Pharmacognosy Practical (1 Credit)
This course will introduce students to the structural and functional features of the light microscope and its accessories. Students will use the microscope to examine unicellular products of pharmaceutical interest. Cell contents to be examined will include: calcium oxalate, silica carbonate crystals, starch and aleurone grains. Microscopic techniques will be applied using chemo-microscopic reagents to identify cell wall constituents such as lignin, lipids, carbohydrates etc. Students will acquire practical skills in the techniques of microscopical analysis, measurements in microscopy and in the preparation of permanent microscope slide mounts. Students will be enabled to identify the descriptive features of plant parts.
PHAR 232 Phytochemistry (2 Credits)
This course will introduce students to medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites as potential therapeutic agents. Students will be enabled to identify active chemical constituents of medicinal plants in terms of their structure and biological characteristics. The pharmaceutical significance of the active constituents will be emphasized. The occurrence, extraction, detection and physico-chemical characterization of the following classes of plant constituents will be considered: complex carbohydrates; glycosides; saponins; alkaloids; lipids; volatile oils and related substances; phenolic compounds; benzopyrans and enzymes.
PHAR 234 Phytochemistry Practical (1 Credit)
In this course students will apply standard phytochemical tests to establish the chemical identity and evaluate the pharmaceutical potential of medicinal plant products. Students will be enabled to perform standardisation and quality assessment of natural products of plant origin. Students will learn techniques of extraction, separation and isolation of plant constituents.
PHAR 331 Natural Drug Production and Evaluation (2 Credits)
This course will ensure appreciation and understanding of factors which influence cultivation, collection, preparation and storage of medicinal plants and also the scientific and technological processes of analysis of natural drugs of plant origin. The course will consider the following: Crude drug production: Endogenous and exogenous factors affecting cultivation and preparation of plant drugs; collection, processing and storage of natural drugs. Adulteration: Forms of adulteration, choice of adulterants and their detection in natural drugs. Evaluation of natural drugs: Methods of evaluation, Separation techniques: and their application in isolation of compounds in plant extracts.
PHAR 333 Natural Drug Production and Evaluation Practical (1 Credit)
In this course students will acquire practical skills for the evaluation, standardization and quality assessment of natural drugs of plant origin. The course will entail the application of microscopy, quantitative microscopy, fluorescence phenomena and chromatography. Students will develop ability to assay natural drugs by the use of standard assay procedures.
PHAR 430 Pharmacognosy/Herbal Medicine Project (6 Credits)
(As for PHAR 410, PHAR 420)
PHAR 431 Plant Poisons and Pesticides (3 Credits)
In this course students will be made aware that plant products are not only potentially therapeutic in humans but can also be toxic to both humans and animals including pests. The course will inform students to recognize biological sources, physico-chemical characteristics and toxicity profile of plant products that are poisonous (including poisonous mushrooms), allergenic, carcinogenic, hallucinogenic, teratogenic and pesticidal. Students will be enabled to appreciate the need for identification and care in handling such plant products to ensure personal safety and also to propose antidotal measures in cases of accidental contamination or ingestion.
PHAR 432 Advances in Phytotherapy and Herbal Medicine (3 Credits)
Students will be made aware of recent developments in phytotherapy and herbal medicine. Selected medicinal plants and herbal preparations will be used for illustrations. Students will appreciate advantages and disadvantages of both orthodox and traditional medicine. Homeopathic, chiropractic medicine and acupuncture will be considered. The course will highlight the use of traditional medicine by WHO in
Developing Countries. Current trends in plant medicine research and the role of research in promoting Traditional Medicine will be emphasized. Socio-cultural implications of the use of Traditional Medicine will be considered. Provision will be made for students to interact with practitioners of traditional medicine.
7.4 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
PHAR 141 Human Anatomy and Physiology (2 Credits)
Appreciation of the action of drugs in human subjects requires a sound knowledge and understanding of the structure and functions of the body at the cellular, tissue, organ and system levels. In this course students will learn the micro-anatomical features and physiological functions of cells, tissues and organs in the following systems of the body: musculo-skeletal system, blood and cardiovascular systems, renal system, endocrine system, reproductive system, digestive system, respiratory system and the nervous system. Details of the structure and function of these systems will be presented and treated in a manner that would ensure that students can recognize the normal state and be able to detect deviations that constitute disease.
PHAR 142 Basic Biochemistry (3 Credits)
Biochemistry and biochemical concepts form an important basis for an understanding of the mechanisms of drug action. This course will therefore provide the essential biochemistry base for the development of the principles of pharmacology and toxicology. Students will study and gain understanding of the structure and molecular properties of the following biomolecules: amino acids, proteins, enzymes, simple and complex carbohydrates, fatty acids, lipids, nucleotides, RNA and DNA. The course will further provide a basis for understanding: The principles of metabolic pathways. Students will develop an appreciation of biological information transfer and molecular biology.
PHAR 143 Human Anatomy and Physiology Practical (1 Credit)
Students will be exposed to experimental methodology to enable them acquire skills for defining the structure (histological features) of various tissues and organs and appreciating the functional characteristics of skeletal and cardiac muscle. Further skills will be developed in observing the various organ functions. E.g. Cardiovascular system: Frog heart model (in situ contractions) – effect of acetylcholine and adrenaline; blood pressure measurements before and after exercise; effect of change of posture on blood pressure. Respiratory system: Spirometry-measurement of lung capacities; the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEVT).
PHAR 144 Basic Biochemistry Practical (1 Credit)
In this course students will acquire practical skills in biochemistry and appreciate biochemical concepts. The course will entail the following laboratory exercises: isolation of glucose from fruits and urine; determination of lactose content of cow’s milk; tests for vitamin A and Thiamine; paper chromatography of amino acids; characterization of pigments in leaves; passive transport; simple demonstration of the activity of dehydrogenases; Urine analysis – determination of protein in urine, glucose in urine, abnormal constituents of urine; glucose tolerance test; cholinesterase stability test.
PHAR 241 General Principles of Pharmacology (3 Credits)
In this course students will be introduced to fundamental concepts pertaining to drug action. Historical development of pharmacology will be addressed. Students will gain appreciation and understanding of the following: Basic pharmacological and toxicological terminology – definitions; Pharmacokinetics – administration, absorption, distribution, biotransformation and elimination of drugs; pharmacodynamics – drug receptor theory, mechanisms of drug action, relationship between drug concentration and effect; measurement in pharmacology (quantitative aspects of pharmacology); Factors influencing response to drugs; Principles of toxicology; Pharmacogenetics.
PHAR 242 Autonomic Pharmacology (3 Credits)
Students will acquire understanding of the structure and function of the autonomic nervous system. This will form the basis of appreciation of the pharmacological significance and therapeutic application of the following: cholinoceptor–activating and cholinesterase- inhibiting drugs; cholinoceptor-blocking drugs; adrenoceptor-activating and other sympathomimetic drugs; adrenoceptor antagonist drugs and centrally acting sympathoplegic agents.
PHAR 243 General Principles of Pharmacology Practical (1 Credit)
In this course students will acquire experience in basic principles of experimental pharmacology. Students will become familiar with laboratory equipment, materials, methodology and techniques in experimental pharmacology. Simple experiments will be designed to illustrate routes of administration of drugs, dose-response relationships, agonists and their sites of action, the phenomenon of antagonism (types, qualitative and quantitative aspects), biological assay (types and presentation-graphical or mathematical).
PHAR 244 Autonomic Pharmacology Practical (1 Credit)
Students will acquire the ability to perform simple experiments to illustrate concepts of autonomic pharmacology. Experiments will demonstrate pharmacology of cholinomimetic and sympathemimetic agents, antagonists acting on cholinoceptors and adrenoceptors, enzyme inhibitors and their effects on drugs acting within the autonomic nervous system. Experiments will involve the use of intestinal smooth muscle of the rabbit and guinea-pig (isolated tissues) and the respiratory system of the guinea-pig (bronchodilators and bronchoconstrictors in the whole animal).
PHAR 341 Endocrine and Immunopharmacology (3 Credits)
This course will ensure an understanding of the pharmacology of the following: Autacoids – histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), vasoactive peptides, the eicosanoids; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; Drugs used in gout; Drugs used in allergy and antagonists of autacoids. Immunomodulators: immunostimulants and immunosuppressive agents. Endocrine drugs; hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, thyroid and antithyroid drugs, adrenocorticosteriods and adrenocortical antagonists, pancreatic hormones and antidiabetic drugs, agents that affect bone mineral homeostasis.
PHAR 342 Systems Pharmacology I (3 Credits)
Students will acquire understanding of drugs acting on the following systems: Cardiovascular and renal system – antihypertensive agents, vasodilators and antiangina agents, drugs used in heart failure, agents used in cardiac arrhythmias, diuretic agents. Gastrointestinal system, Respiratory System – drugs used in the treatment and management of asthma, mucolytics, antitussives, respiratory stimulants. In the study of all these drugs students will be expected to know the mechanism of pharmacological action, undesired side effects, clinical indications and clinically significant interactions with other drugs.
PHAR 343 Experimental Pharmacology I Practical (In vitro) (1 Credit)
In this course students will gain hands-on experience with the following isolated tissues and organs: Intestinal smooth muscle (Rabbit duodenum), Guinea-pig tracheal chain preparation, Isolated Phrenicnerve-hemidiaphragm preparation of the rat, Rat isolated uterus preparation and the frog rectus abdominis muscle preparation to perform a bioassay (STTS assay) of acetylcholine. Students will be expected to acquire practical skills in isolating tissues and organs and preparing them in appropriate experimental conditions for various types of study. Emphasis will be placed on the choice of experimental tissue or organ and the maintenance of suitable ambient conditions for the experiment.
PHAR 344 Principles of Toxicology (2 Credits)
This course will seek to provide knowledge of fundamental concepts of toxicology to students. Aspects of toxicology to be treated will include: introduction to Toxicology: occupational and environmental; heavy metal intoxication and chelators; antidotes in poisoning; Tissue and organ manifestations of chemical poisoning; characteristics of acute and chronic poisoning. Management of toxic situations will also be highlighted.
PHAR 346 Experimental Pharmacology II Practical (in vivo) (1 Credit)
This course will provide the student with skills in pharmacological experimentation in whole or intact subjects as opposed to isolated tissues and organs. The student will acquire techniques in preparing the subject for the study. The course will include the following: The human eye, the anaesthetized cat, The conscious guinea-pig, sleeping time in rats and neuro-behavioural experiments, Sulphonamide metabolism in man – determination of urinary output of a sulphonamide after oral ingestion in man, clinical implications.
PHAR 440 Pharmacology Project (6 Credits)
(As for PHAR 410, PHAR 420)
PHAR 441 Systems Pharmacology II (3 Credits)
This course will consider drugs that affect central nervous system (CNS) Functions and Disorders. Students will be expected to acquire understanding of the classification, general pharmacological properties, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical uses and contraindications and undesirable side effects of CNS drugs. The course will provide a broad pharmacological knowledge of the following: Chemical transmission and drug action in the central nervous system; sedative-hypnotic drugs; the alcohols; antiseizure drugs; general anaesthetic agents; local anaesthetics; skeletal muscle relaxants; pharmacologic management of parkinsonism and other movement disorders; antipsychotic agents; antidepressants; opioid analgesics and antagonists and drug and substance abuse.
PHAR 442 Chemotherapy and Anti-infective Agents (3 Credits)
In this course students will be expected to develop knowledge and understanding of the classification, general pharmacological properties including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical uses, contraindications and undesirable side effects of the drugs. The course will deal with the following: basic principles of chemotherapy; cancer chemotherapy; antibacterial agents; antiviral drugs; antifungal drugs; antiprotozoal drugs; anthelminthic drugs; drug resistance.
7.5 Department of Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Pharmacy
PHAR 151 Computer Literacy I (1 Credit)
This course provides students with fundamental knowledge by way of introduction to informatics. This will include the following: Basic parts of a computer system – hardware and software of computer system; how the computer system works; computer networks. Students will also be introduced to basic computer applications – word processing, computer graphics, calculations and simulations e.g. Spreadsheet, statistical software and data representation; information management, search algorithms and databases; Global information infrastructure – structure and organization of the world wide web (www), www browsers, information search in www, search engines educational resources in www, pharmaceutical resources in www, molecular and bioinformatics.
PHAR 152 Computer Literacy II (Prerequisite: PHAR 151) (1 Credit)
The course will provide students with the requisite knowledge that would enable them develop further computer literacy skills. The course will prepare students to develop competence to describe the structure and functions of an operating system and apply software in the practice of pharmacy and healthcare delivery. Application software vs. system software (operating system) with suitable examples will be discussed. The learning opportunities in this course will include robotics and automation in pharmacy; integrated healthcare information systems; legal and ethical aspects of information technology; commercial applications of information technology and the use of computer technology in drug information and pharmaceutical error prevention.
PHAR 153 Orientation to Pharmacy (2 Credits)
In this course students will be introduced to pharmacy as a discipline in Science, as an industry, as a profession in healthcare delivery and as a social service to the community. Students will be expected to understand and appreciate the scope, evolution of pharmacy globally and in Ghana, the ethics of the profession, the branches of Pharmacy: Hospital Pharmacy, Community Pharmacy, Industrial Pharmacy, Academic and Research Pharmacy and Regulatory Pharmacy. Students will be made aware of career opportunities and responsibilities in the job market and the requirements for training and registration for practice.
PHAR 154 Psychology and Behavioural Science (2 Credits)
In this course students will learn the relevance of psychology in pharmacy practice. The role of the pharmacist in getting patients to accept pharmaceutical care will be emphasized. The course will entail: definition, brief history and scope of psychology, illness behaviour, understanding the patient, effective counselling to ensure therapeutic confidence and patient compliance. Students will be enabled to appreciate the significance of good inter-personal relationships in healthcare delivery. Aspects of behavioural science and industrial and social psychology will be considered.
UGRC 110 Academic Writing I (3 Credits)
The main objective of Academic Writing I is to equip students with the language skills that will enable them to read and write effectively. Students will be taken initially through fundamental issues in grammar and composition in order to consolidate their language skills in these areas. Subsequently, reading and writing skills relevant to university work will be introduced. These will include the structure of the essay, unity, completeness and coherence in essay writing; summarizing as a skill basic to exposition, writing from sources, referencing skills and avoiding plagiarism. The course will be taught in small groups and class activities are characterised by group work, oral presentations and extensive practical assignments.
UGRC 150 Critical Thinking and Practical Reasoning (3 Credits)
An essential element in the training of social studies and humanities students is providing a corrective and diagnostic skill set that enables students to discriminate logically between: rhetorical ploys that give motives vs. arguments providing good logical reasons for believing an assertion. Students need to recognize the contrast between inductive and deductive reasoning and the different types of support yielded by each, to evaluate the quality of evidence confirming an empirical hypothesis about human conduct, to maintain individual professional and scholarly discretion in the face of peer pressure and mob mentality. Those enrolled in this course will be provided the vocabulary and techniques to employ critical thought and practice within the academic arena and beyond.
PHAR 251 Biostatistics (2 Credits)
This course will help students to acquire knowledge in the principles of statistics as they apply to analysis and evaluation of biomedical systems including pharmacotherapy. Evaluation of pharmaceutical interventions in public health issues, using appropriate statistical methods, will be given prominence. Course will emphasize on presentation of sample data; Measures of central tendency and dispersion; Probability distribution; Sampling procedures; Estimation – application of Student’s t Test, the Chi-
Square Test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Experimental Design; Hypothesis testing; Fitting a line;
Regression theory; Correlation and Contingency tables. Students will be expected to develop competencies in the application of these statistical principles for the assessment of pharmacotherapy in the management of diseases. The significance of biostatistics in health care delivery systems will be emphasized.
PHAR 252 Chemical Pathology (2 Credits)
An awareness of the nature and extent of deviation from normal values and features of physiology, biochemistry and micro-anatomy in disease is an essential pre-requisite for effective pharmaceutical care. This course will provide the necessary knowledge in chemical pathology for determining remedial measures to be taken. Students will acquire an understanding of normal and disease – related changes in biochemical and physiological parameters occurring in tissue and body fluids, cells and tissues, organs and systems of the body. Students will be expected to know relevant terminology and pharmaceutical mechanisms underlying procedures that are employed to restore normalcy to these parameters.
PHAR 253 Entrepreneurial skills (Practical) (2 Credits)
This course will enable students to acquire skills as entrepreneurs in pharmacy practice particularly in a highly competitive technological and economic environment. Students will be expected to develop the ability to: Recognize and assess their entrepreneurial potential; Appreciate the need to be creative, effective communicators, and innovative in their profession. Students will also develop the ability to apply basic concepts and tools involved in the creation and functioning of a new and profitable technology- based venture. The course will entail: Evaluation of opportunities, assessment and acquisition of resources; development of a business plan and Assessment of the implications of prevailing business climate and economic and professional environment for establishing a new enterprise.
PHAR 254 Chemical Pathology Practical (1 Credit)
This course deals with the practical aspects of PHAS 252. Students will gain practical experience in methodology for measuring parameters in chemical pathology. Students will be expected to be familiar with equipment, reagents and histopathological techniques employed in chemical pathology. Diagnostic value and clinical significance of changes in the biochemical and physiological parameters will be discussed.
UGRC 210: Academic Writing II
Academic Writing II is a follow-up to Academic Writing I and builds upon the skills acquired in the first year. Students will be required to read and critique a variety of academic essays in their areas of study. Writing activities will derive from these reading tasks and students will be guided to develop their writing through process writing which involves: pre-drafting, drafting, re-writing and revising. In this broad context, students will revise and consolidate their grammar through proof reading and editing activities. The course will also involve training students to write from multiple sources as a preparation for doing research-based writing. Activities will be geared towards getting students to develop the skills of extracting and sorting information from multiple sources and synthesizing them into coherent arguments in an essay. Students will be required to write such a synthesis essay for assessment. Subsequently, students will be introduced to academic presentation skills.
PHAR 351 Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability (3 Credits)
This course is designed to equip students with the appreciation of patient-based clinical pharmacotherapy. Although an overview of basic concepts of pharmacokinetics will be reviewed, their clinical applications will remain the main thrust. Hence, upon completion of the course, students should be able to explain compartmental models given their clinical correlates and describe the principle of superposition and how it applies to multiple drug dosing. Define the model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Students should be able to determine appropriate drug regimen of patients receiving aminoglycosides, vancomycin, theophylline, phenytoin and digoxin and construct plasma drug concentration versus times curves of typical patients and use properties of the curve to determine patient’s pharmacokinetic parameters and calculate alpha (), beta (β), and intercepts A and B for a drug conforming to a two compartment model.
PHAR 352 Social and Behavioural Pharmacy (3 Credits)
This course will provide students with knowledge of the principles involved in pharmacy practice. Students will be expected to understand the legal and ethical principles of the practice of pharmacy. They will be expected to acquire full knowledge of the provisions of the Pharmacy Act 489, 1994, its Legislative Instrument and the Food and Drugs Law 1992, and its amendments. Students will be introduced to the code of Ethics of the Pharmaceutical Society of Ghana: Professional ethics, professional characteristics and responsibilities. Students must be conversant with; institutional patient care, ambulatory patient care, long-term patient care facilities, public health issues, behavioural determinants of the patient, patient communication, drug education and information, patient compliance, the prescription, drug interactions, clinical drug literature, and National Health Insurance Scheme.
PHAR 353 Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics (2 Credits)
Pharmacoepidemiology is the discipline that seeks to understand the use of and the effects of medicines in large numbers of people. Pharmacoepidemiological studies quantify the risks and benefits of drug treatment in different populations. Pharmacoeconomics entails evaluation of ways and means of applying limited resources to provide the best pharmacotherapy. In other words, the study encompasses analysis of costs and outcomes associated with the use of pharmaceutical products and services. It is closely related to outcomes research which is the scientific measurement of the impact of antecedent health care. Upon completion the student will: Appreciate the role of the statistical concepts and methods in drug development, drug use, drug safety monitoring and drug safety research; compare and contrast costeffectiveness, cost-minimization, cost-utility and cost-benefit analyses; obtain clinical and humanistic outcomes data; compare and contrast the decision-analytic and statistical methods of modelling a disease intervention; calculate an expected cost and an expected outcome using a decision tree.
PHAR 354 Community Pharmacy Practice Practical (1 Credit)
In this course students will be exposed to real life situations of Community Pharmacy Practice. The School will link up with selected Community pharmacies where students will be assigned short periods of professional mentorships under identified pharmacists. The School will set up a Model Community Pharmacy for teaching in an actual professional setting. Students will be expected to gain supervised experience in the Model Pharmacy practice. Students will present written reports of case studies assigned to them.
PHAR 450 Pharmacy Practice Project (6 Credits)
(As for PHAR 410, PHAR 420)
PHAR 451 Pharmacotherapy and Disease Management (3 Credits)
In this course students will learn the general application of drugs to the treatment of diseases. The course will entail identification and recognition of pathophysiology of diseases; factors influencing the choice of appropriate pharmacotherapeutic intervention; medication implications e.g. drug interactions, adverse drug events and iatrogenic effects; patient compliance issues; patient counselling issues; therapeutic outcomes; and follow-up pharmaceutical care.
PHAR 452 Patient Treatment Assessment(4 Credits)
In this course students will be given access to selected patients on drug treatment on ward rounds and at the OPD Pharmacy. Students will have opportunity to determine the patient’s response to therapy. This will be done in consultation with health-care providers. Subsequent to this, students will be expected to evaluate the merits and demerits of the treatment given in the context of the broad principles of pharmacotherapy.