University of Ghana - UG Course Outlines

Courses Under Economics University of Ghana

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More information can be obtained from the University.




First Semester 

Course Code   Course Title     Credits
*UGRC 110 Academic Writing I         3
*UGRC 130 Science and Technology in Our Lives         3
*UGRC 150 Critical Thinking and Practical Reasoning         3
*UGRC 160 Introduction to Literature         3
ECON 101 Introduction to Economics I         3
2 courses from 2 other assigned departments         6
Minimum Credits Required         15

*Note: Students to choose any 2 courses (6 credits) of the UGRC


Second Semester 

Course Code   Course Title    Credits
*UGRC 110 Academic Writing I        3
*UGRC 130 Science and Technology in Our Lives        3
*UGRC 150 Critical Thinking and Practical Reasoning        3
*UGRC 160 Introduction to Literature        3
ECON 102 Introduction to Economics II        3
2 courses from 2 other assigned departments        6
Minimum Credits Required       15

*Note: Students to choose any 2 courses (6 credits) of the UGRC LEVEL 200

Students offering Mathematics and/or Statistics will take ECON 213 in the first semester and  ECON 214 in the second semester.


First Semester

Course Code   Course Title     Credits
*UGRC 210 Academic Writing II        3
*UGRC 220 Introduction to African Studies        3
ECON 211 Elements of Economics I        3
ECON 213 Elements of  Mathematics for Economists        3
ECON 215 Economy of Ghana I        3
2 courses  from other assigned department        6
Minimum Credits Required        18

*Note: Students to choose UGRC 210 or UGRC 220 (3 credits).


Second Semester 

Course Code   Course Title     Credits
*UGRC 210 Academic Writing II         3
*UGRC 220 Introduction to African Studies         3
ECON 212 Elements of Economics II         3
ECON 214 Elements of  Statistics for Economists         3
ECON 216 Economy of Ghana II         3
2 courses from other assigned department         6
Minimum Credits Required         18

*Note: Students to choose UGRC 210 or UGRC 220 (3 credits).




Major students will take all core courses and all elective courses, making 24 credits in a year, and combined major students will take all core courses and two electives, making 18 credits in a year. Minor students will take all (four) core courses in a year, making 12 credits.


First Semester 

Course Code   Course Title     Credits
  Core Courses  
ECON 311 Microeconomic Theory I        3
ECON 313 Macroeconomic Theory I        3
  Elective Courses  
ECON 315 Applied Mathematics for Economists        3
ECON 317 Economic Development and Growth I        3


Second Semester 

Course Code   Course Title     Credits
  Core Courses  
ECON 312 Microeconomic Theory II        3
ECON 314 Macroeconomic Theory II        3
  Elective Courses  
ECON 316 Applied Mathematics for economist        3
ECON 318 Economic Development and Growth II        3



Total credits at Level 300

A Major student will take 24 credits in a year plus 6 credits from the other assigned department, making a total of 30 credits.

A combined major student will take 18 credits in a year plus 15 credits from the other assigned department, making 33 credits.

A minor student will take 12 credits in a year plus 24 credits from the other assigned department, making 36 credits.




A major student will take all core courses and a minimum of two elective courses in a semester, making 15 credits in a semester, while a combined major student will take one core course in a semester (i.e. ECON 441 in the first semester and ECON 442 in the second semester) and four electives in a year, making 18 credits in a year.    


First Semester 

Course Code   Course Title      Credits
Core Courses
ECON 441 Economic Theory I          3
ECON 443 Econometrics I          3
ECON 445 Cost benefit Analysis          3
Elective Courses
ECON 447 International Economics I          3
ECON 449 Industrial Economics I          3
ECON 453 Public Finance I          3
EC ON 457 Agricultural Economics I          3
ECON 467 Economic Planning I          3
ECON 469 Labour Economics I          3
ECON 473 Money And Banking I          3



Second Semester 

Course Code   Course Title     Credits
Core Courses
ECON 442 Economic Theory II          3
ECON 444 Econometrics II          3
ECON 446 Project Work          3
Elective Courses
ECON 448 International Economics II          3
ECON 452 Industrial Economics II          3
ECON 454 Public Finance II          3
EC ON 458 Agricultural Economics II          3
ECON 468 Economic Planning II          3
ECON 472 Labour Economics II          3
ECON 474 Money And Banking II          3


Total credits at level 400

A major student will take 30 credits from the department in a year.

A combined major student will take 18 credits from the department and 15 credits from the other assigned department, making 33 credits


Total credits needed to Graduate

A major student: 126 credits

A combined major student:  132 credits

A minor student: 132 credits


Course Descriptions


ECON 101:         Introduction to Economics I     

This course is intended to provide the student with knowledge of:  (i) the basic principles of economics such as the nature and scope of economics, scarcity and opportunity cost , the use of theories in economics, the market economy and the working of markets , and  demand and supply analysis. (ii) the evolution of schools of thought in economics. It will also introduce the student to important aspects of the Economy of Ghana and development issues of sub-Saharan Africa.


ECON 102:         Introduction to Economics II     

This course introduces some of the basic concepts and issues of macroeconomics. They include topics such as economic growth and overall living standards, national output concepts and measurement, and the national income accounts of Ghana. Other major macroeconomic variables such as the price level and inflation, employment and unemployment, government budget deficits, and balance of payment accounts are also explored. The course also introduces the theory of national income determination in the short run using expenditure analysis.


ECON 211:        Elements Of Economics I  (Pre-req: ECON 101)

The Nature and Scope of Economics. The Economic System, Scarcity and Opportunity Costs.

Supply and Demand, Elasticity, concepts, problems and applications. Application of Demand and Supply. The Economics of Agriculture, the Theory of Household Behaviour. Consumer Behaviour. Theory of Production.  Nature of Cost Curves.  Market Structure – Perfect Competition, Monopoly.


ECON 212:        Elements Of Economics II (Pre-requisite:  ECON 102)    

This course will deal with varieties of macroeconomic thinking, measuring aggregate output, income and prices, aggregate demand and income determination, fluctuations of aggregate demand, GNP, fiscal policy, (mechanisms, problems and issues). It will cover topics such as money: what it is and what it does, the supply of money, monetary policy (mechanisms, problems and issues). Other areas to be treated include inflation and unemployment, aggregate demand and aggregate supply, inflation and unemployment, the gains from trade,  international exchange, trade policy (mechanics, problems and issues), economic development and world poverty.


ECON 213:         Elements Of Mathematics For Economists

This course will cover fundamental techniques such as (i) basic algebraic procedures, simple and simultaneous equations; (ii) functions, types, and graphical representation. (iii) simple economic applications and simple market models; introduction to calculus, including (i) concepts of Slope and continuity, (ii) meaning of derivatives and differentiation, (iii) techniques of differentiation and rules, (iv) applications to economic, phenomena, comparative statistics, elasticities, propensities, input-output models. It will also look at functions in one variable, including (i) maximum and minimum points, (ii)  second order conditions, and (iii) applications.  Functions of two or more variables such as (i) partial derivatives (ii) determination of maximum and minimum points, (iii) second order conditions (iv) constrained maximization, the Lagrangean Technique, First and Second Order Conditions, applications, profit maximization and consumer choice problems, input and output demand functions, cost functions and introduction to integral calculus, (ii) techniques and rules of integration (iii)  applications.  Investment, saving functions and growth models will also be treated.


ECON 214:         Elements Of Statistics For Economists

We will look at the scope of statistics, collection, classification, tabulations and presentation of data. Frequency distributions, graphical presentation and the  lorenz curve will be given attention. Measures of location, dispersion and skewness will also be examined. Probability, sets, experiments, events, sample space, conditional probability, statistical independence, random variable and elementary treatment of distributions, inclding Binomial, Poisson and Chi-square distributions will be covered. Simple Random sampling, the central limit theorem and Normal distribution will also be treated.


We will also focus on estimation and tests of significance, including correlation coefficient, rank correlational point estimation, biasedness, consistency and Type I and II errors as well as Simple linear regression, tests of hypotheses concerning means, proportions, variances, significance levels and t and f tests. Confidence intervals for means, association and contingency tables will also be looked at.


ECON 215:         Economy of Ghana I    

National Income Accounting, Income, expenditure and Product approaches to estimating national income; national income as a measure of welfare; problems and methods of comparing income between countries and in one country overtime. Structure of the Economy; changes in Ghana’s Economic Structure, Theories of Structural Changes. Growth performance of the aggregate economy; accounting for growth. Sectors, growth performance and structure; agriculture, manufacturing, mining and quarrying and construction, services, etc. Population, labour force and Economic Growth, Labour Force Participation, Unemployment and Employment Migration.


ECON 216:          Economy of Ghana II    

International Trade:  Balance of payments – measuring and nature; foreign trade statistics, policies to deal with balance of payments deficits, economic aid.  Inflation and Growth; Price Index; Ghana’s Consumer Prices Index; Price Policy; Relationship between Inflation and Growth. Monetary sector; the Financial Institutions; Monetary policy in historical perspective, Government and the Economy;  Role of government in the economy; the government’s budget – sources of revenue, public expenditure; financing budget deficits.  Planning:  A comparative study of planning in Ghana.

ECON 311:        Microeconomic Theory I (Pre-req: EC0N 211 and ECON 213)    

Economic model-building.  Positive and normative economics. Micro and Macro. Comparative Static and dynamic models. Consumer Behaviour and Demand Theory, Cardinal utility approach to demand theory: law of diminishing marginal utility, consumer equilibrium, Marshal’s derivation of law of demand. Ordinal utility approach: indifference curve analysis; principle of diminishing marginal rate of substitution; consumer equilibrium, price consumption curve; income consumption curve; income effect; substitution effect; price effect; inferior good, Giffen good. Revealed preference approach: brief treatment. Demand function; individual and market demand schedules and curves; ceteris paribus assumptions; elasticity of demand; price elasticity of demand; income elasticity of demand; price and marginal revenue; cross-elasticities. Theory of Production: Production function: Total, average, and marginal product. 3-stage analysis. Isoquants. Marginal rate of technical substitution. Isocost curves. Relationships between costs and inputs. Expansion path.  Social costs and private costs.  Short-run cost theory: fixed, variable, total, average and marginal cost.  Long-run costs. Cost elasticity.  Economies and diseconomies of scale. Theory of the Firm: Perfect Competition: Basic concepts, definitions, assumptions: the firm, market, product homogeneity, perfect knowledge, profit maximization, free entry. Short-run equilibrium of firm and industry. Long-run equilibrium of the firm.  Constant and increasing costs industries.


ECON 312:        Microeconomic Theory II (Prerequisite: ECON 311)    

Monopoly: Definition and assumption of model. Demand curve under monopoly. Short-run equilibrium.  Long-run equilibrium. Price discrimination. Monopolistic Competition. Meaning: product differentia-tion, many sellers.  Pricing decision under monopolistic competition; shortrun and long-run equilibrium.  excess Capacity. Oligopoly: Concepts, Duopoly models.  Kinked demand curve. Theory of games (brief introduction). Brief discussion of behavioural theories of the firm. Theory of Distribution. Marginal productivity theory in perfectly competitive markets; demand for a factor of production, supply of a variable factor; product exhaustion; distribution and relative factor share, elasticity of substitution; technological progress. Modifications of the theory – introduction of imperfections in product and factor markets; monopoly and monopsony; trade unions. Theory of rent: Ricardian treatment.  Modern treatment – derived demand, transfer costs, opportunity costs quasi-rent. Capital and interest: as an application of marginal productivity theory. Determination of rate of interest by supply and demand. Welfare Economics: Pareto optimality; optimum conditions of production and exchange.  The role of welfare economics in modern economic analysis.


ECON 313:        Macroeconomic Theory I (Pre-req:  ECON 212 and ECON 213)    

Introduction: Macroeconomic variable; functional relationships and parameters; national income and national product accounting; circular flow of income and spending. Classical Macroeconomics: Say’s law of market; the quantity theory of money; saving, investment and the rate of interest to the classical full-employment equilibrium; Wicksell’s formulation: monetary and fiscal policy in classical economics. Keynesian Macroeconomics: The consumption function; the multiplier; simple Keynesian model; liquidity preference and the speculative demand for money; the liquidity trap; extensions of the simple Keynesian model, government – expenditure multiplier; balanced-budget multiplier; investment and foreign-trade multiplier; policy implications of the Keynesian model. Aggregate Demand and Supply Curves. Theory of Inflation: Demand-pull and cost-push inflation; the dynamics of inflation; hyper-inflation and creeping inflation; Phillips curve; controls of inflation.


ECON 314:         Macroeconomic Theory II (Prerequisite: ECON 313)    

Consumption Demand. Absolute Income, Life Cycle, Permanent income and Relative Income Hypothesis; Theory of Investment. Motivation of investment; determination of `present’ value of investment; marginal efficiency of capital; acceleration principle. Combination of the Classical and Keynesian Models. The equality of saving and investment; introduction of supply and demand for money; the Hicks-Hansen analysis and synthesis; flexible wages and employment; critical evaluation of the Keynesian model. The Demand for Money and Money Supply. Theory of Economic Growth. The Classical growth model; Harrod-Domar growth model; policy implications. External Trade. Theory of Economic Policy


ECON 315:          Applied Mathematics For Economists                        (Prerequisite: ECON 213 and ECON 214)

Review of basic mathematical concepts; derivations, rules for differentiation, integral, calculus, difference and differential equations.  Mathematical treatment of the theory of consumer behaviour; axioms of consumer behaviour; utility functions, budget lines; consumer utility maximization; derivation of demand curves; priced and income elasticities; complements and substitutes; normal inferior and Giffen good.  Mathematical treatment of production theory. Production functions:  Cobb-Douglas, Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES), and Homogeneous production functions.  Derivation of the isoquant, the expansion path, and the elasticity of substitution; producer profit maximization. The applications of difference and differential equations to the analyses of economic fluctuations and the `cobweb’ model.


ECON 316:         Applied Statistics For Economists

(Prerequisite:  ECON 213 and ECON 214)

Review of probability distributions of importance to economic problems: normal, binomial, Poisson.  Multi-variate distributions. Construction of index numbers: Time series analysis. Basic design of questionnaires and analysis of variance of experimental (or survey date-applications to economic data. Tests of significance. Correlation and regression (simple and multiple) analyses. Economic interpretation of regression coefficients of Demand and Supply functions. Derivation of elasticities of demand and supply.  Economic policy implications.


ECON 317:        Economic Development And Growth I  (Pre-req: Econ 211 and 212)   

This course is designed to introduce students to some major growth models (both traditional and contemporary) and cross cutting issues such as gender and sustainable development, poverty and inequality. The course is also designed to expose students to issues such as the relationship between Aid debt and growth and trade and growth.


ECON 318: Economic Development And Growth II (Pre-req: Econ 211 and 212)     This course is the continuation  the exploration of  Economic growth and development which began in the first semester. It focuses on specific problems faced by less developed countries. In this course issues such as high population, urbanization and rural migration and education are considered.


ECON 441:        Economic Theory I (Micro) (Pre-req: ECON 311 and 312.    

                               A good background in Quantitative Techniques)

The nature of Economic Theory. Theory of Consumer Behaviour and firm behaviour treated as maximization problems under given constraints. General equilibrium analysis under different market situations with the conditions for an optimum solution expressed mathematically.

Introduction to welfare economics and economics of socialism.

ECON 442:        Economic Theory II (Macro) (Pre-req: ECON 313 and 314.   

                               A good background in Quantitative Techniques)

National Income Accounting Revisited. National Income Determination. Harrod – Domar growth models and macro-models using difference equations; growth in the context of adjustment; growth and technological change. Theory of Unemployment and Inflation. Mercantilism and the transition from feudalism to capitalism. The classical school. The Marxian theory of capitalist development.  Economic historicism. The marginal approach. The neo-classical model. Keynes and the impact of his thought on economic analyses and policy.  Modern trends of thought.


ECON 443:        Econometrics I  (Prerequisite: ECON 315 and 316)    

The Meaning and Purpose of Econometrics: Econometrics of Demand. Econometric demand equations. Theory of the disturbance term. Cross-sectional analysis, and Engel curves.

Econometric Methods: Least Square (LS), Tests of original hypotheses, and analysis of residuals. A battery of statistical and economic tests of the economic and statistical hypotheses of the equation of relation; co-efficient of correlation, determination, variation; t-tests; test for randomness or serial correlation of the disturbances, of graphing the residuals, and by the Durbin classical least square, and using matrix methods. The sample error co-variance matrix of estimated parameters. Econometrics of the Firm and of Supply.


ECON 444:        Econometrics II (Prerequisite: ECON 315 and 316)    

Models Embodying Many Equations: Least squares bias in the estimation of parameters in simultaneous equations systems. Elementary methods of attacking this bias problem. Indirect Least Squares (ILS); Instrumental Variables (IV); Two Stage Least Squares (TL); Rules for testing identification.  Laboratory exercise involves a simple three equation model of the economy of Ghana, in which one over-identified three variable equation is estimated by LS and TL. The TL result is put through all of the tests. Miscellaneous Econometric Problems: Collinearity of explanatory variables.  Delayed responses and lagged variables.  Estimation when disturbances are serially correlated. Use of artificial or shift variable (dummy variables).  Testing for change of structure – the Chow Test.


ECON 445:          Cost Benefit Analysis

This course introduces students to the mechanics of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). The course is designed to expose students to the keys issue in CBA including measurements issues, methods for evaluating projects and criteria for choosing between alternative projects. It is expected that students will be adequately equipped with the skills needed for the completion of the project work at the end of the course.


ECON 446:          Project Work (Prerequisite: ECON445)

Students are expected to write a project based on the analytical skills acquired in ECON445.


ECON 447:        International Economics I (Pre-req: a good background in


This is an introductory course in international economics. It is designed to introduce students to international trade theory and provide a basis for understanding trade policies. The course covers major theories of trade (Ricardian, Hecksher-Ohlin and modern trade theories) as well as the relationship between trade and economic growth, with a particular focus on the role of trade policy.



ECON 448:          International Economics II  

This course is complementary to Econ 447 and aims to teach tools for understanding international financial flows for a complete understanding of the workings of the external sector of the economy. The main areas covered include balance of payments, exchange rate determination and policy making in an open economy.  Topical issues in the international monetary system, aid, debt and foreign direct investment are also discussed.


ECON 449:        Industrial Economics I (Prerequisite: ECON 311 and 312)   

The goal of this course is to introduce students to the structure and organization of firms in an industry. Welfare implications of output and price determination under major market structures (monopoly and perfect competition) are briefly discussed. Special emphasis is also given to the determinants and measurement of industrial market structures.


ECON 452:        Industrial Economics II (Prerequisite: ECON 449)

This course continues the discussion of the structure and organization of industries with a discussion of strategic behavior of firms and regulation of firms. In terms of the former, the issues discussed include coordination in oligopoly markets and price and non-pricing competitive behavior. Under regulation, attention will be paid to anti-trust policies, intellectual property rights and strategic industrial policy.


ECON 453:        Public Finance I (Prerequisite: ECON 311, 312, 313 and 314)   

This course is designed to introduce students to issues such as public goods and externalities and government failure. In addition, issues on public expenditure such as types of public expenditure, components of public expenditure, cause of public expenditure growth and models on public expenditure are also considered.


ECON 454:         Public Finance II   (Prerequisite: ECON 453)

This course is structured in such a way as to introduce students to the issues on taxation. Special emphasis is given to issues such as characteristics of a good system, partial and general equilibrium analysis of the impact of different categories of taxes on consumers and producers in an economy and the analysis of public debt. In discussing these issues, emphasis is placed on empirical evidence from Ghana.


ECON 457:          Agricultural Economics I                                                               (Pre-req: A good background in Economic Theory)

This course focuses on the economic issues of agriculture in developing countries. It looks at the structure and organization of agriculture in developing countries and the attendant problems for mechanization, the agricultural production function, pricing of agricultural inputs and outputs. The course also place special emphasis on technology adoption in agriculture.


ECON 458:         Agricultural Economics II  (Prereq: ECON 457)   

This course continues the discussion on agriculture in developing countries with a focus on the main issues and problems of agriculture and transformation as well as a discussion of policy measures to address these problems. The main problems  discussed are land tenure systems and land reforms, marketing of agricultural products (with particular attention paid to international commodity pricing of agricultural products), financing for agriculture and external constraints to agricultural policy.



ECON 467: Economic Planning I (Prerequisite: ECON 311, ECON 312  ECON 313 and 314)

This course focuses on introductory issues in economic planning. It begins with the political economy debate on the relative roles of the state and market in a developing country setting. This is followed by a comprehensive discussion of the various issues in planning: types of planning , the rationale for planning, the planning process, institutional frameworks, challenges of planning.


ECON 468:         Economic Planning II (Prerequisite: ECON 467)   

[Wends the discussion on the planning process and on economic planning in Ghana and other developing countries. The course will further examine differences and similarities among the various plans  and do an evaluation of each plan.


ECON 469:        Labour Economics I (Prerequisite: ECON 311 and 312)   

This course is designed to enable students gain a thorough understanding of the functioning of labour markets. It focuses mainly on wage determination, the demand for and supply of labour. The course also exposes students to theories of human capital development, i.e.,  the return to human capital investment and efficiency wage models.


ECON 472:        Labour Economics II   (Prerequisite: ECON 469)   

The course focuses mainly on the labour market in Ghana. The course will begin with a discussion of the structure and patterns of employment (unemployment and underemployment) in Ghana. The major labour market institutions and elements of industrial relations are also discussed. The course gives attention issues and problems of the labour market and industrial relations in Ghana (in particular, labour market discrimination) as well as labour market policies.


ECON 473:        Money And Banking I (Pre-req: ECON 313 and ECON 314)   

This is an introductory course in monetary theory. It begins with the development of modern money from a barter system. It also focuses on the detailed treatment of the money market in a closed economy with an examination of various theories of the demand for money and measurements and determinants of money supply. Other areas covered include the terms structure of interest rates and money in the open economy.


ECON 474:         Money And Banking II (Pre-req: ECON 473   

This course builds on the examination of monetary theory which began in the  first semester, with a focus on the role of financial institutions and the conduct of monetary policy. Financial intermediation, with emphasis on the role of formal financial institutions and the informal/semi formal and microfinance institutions, is treated in detail. The financial system and monetary policy experience.



Peter N. Djangmah is a multifaceted individual with a passion for education, entrepreneurship, and blogging. With a firm belief in the power of digital education and science, I am affectionately known as the Private Minister of Information. Connect with me
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