University of Ghana - UG Course Outlines


We’ve realized Students stay away from certain courses because they seem not to know the details, seekersnewsgh has dedicated this section to bring to you all available courses under the various programmes at the University.  Kindly go through it to make an informed decision.



More information can be obtained from the University.



LEVEL 100        


*Note: Students to choose any 2 courses (6 credits) of the UGRC

Course Code Course Title Credits
*UGRC 110  Academic Writing I     3
*UGRC 120 Numeracy Skills     3
*UGRC 141-146 Science and Technology in Our Lives     3
*UGRC 150 Critical Thinking and Practical Reasoning     3
GEOG 111 Introduction to Physical Geography     3
2 Courses from 2 other assigned Departments     6
  Minimum Credits Required     15



*Note: Students to choose any 2 courses (6 credits) of the UGRC

Course Code Course Title Credits
*UGRC 110  Academic Writing I     3
*UGRC 120 Numeracy Skills     3
*UGRC 141-146 Science and Technology in Our Lives     3
*UGRC 150 Critical Thinking and Practical Reasoning     3
GEOG 112 Introduction to Human Geography     3
2 Courses from 2 other assigned Departments     6
  Minimum Credits Required     15






*Note: Students to choose UGRC 210 or UGRC 220-238* (3 credits)

Course Code Course Title Credits
*UGRC 210 Academic Writing II     3
UGRC 220-238* Introduction to African Studies     3
GEOG 211 Introduction to Geographic Thought     3
GEOG 213 Introduction to Weather and Climate     3
2 Courses from the other assigned Department     6
  Minimum Credits Required     15



Course Code Course Title   Credits
*UGRC 210 Academic Writing II     3
UGRC 220-238* Introduction to African Studies     3
GEOG 212 Geomorphological Processes and Landforms     3
GEOG 214 Principles and Methods of Cartography     3
OTHER SUBJECT 2 Courses from the other assigned Department     3
  Minimum Credits Required    15

*Note: Students to choose UGRC 210 or UGRC 220-238* (3 credits).







A Geography Major student will take all core courses, and at least ONE elective course. Then any ONE course from the other assigned Department per semester. (15 credits)

A Combined major Geography student will take a total of THREE CORE courses per year and at least ONE elective course per semester.




Course Code   Course Title Credits
GEOG 321 Soils and Biogeography     3
GEOG 323 Regional Geography of Africa   (One region outside West Africa)     3
GEOG 325 Theory and Practice of Geography     3
Any  ONE Elective  Course (3 credits)
GEOG 327 Introduction to Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)     3
GEOG 331 Arid Lands     3
Any ONE Course from the other assigned Department     3
Minimum Credits Required    15



Course Code Course Title Credits
GEOG 322 Introduction to Resource Analysis   3
GEOG 324 Regional Geography of West Africa with Special Reference to Ghana   3
GEOG 326 Research Methods   3
Any  ONE Elective  Course (3 credits)
GEOG. 328 Geography of Gender and Development in Africa  3
GEOG 342 Climatology  3
GEOG 344 Geographic Information System (GIS)  3
Any ONE Course from the other assigned Department  3
Minimum Credits Required  15



A Geography Major student will take TWO core courses and at least TWO elective courses plus a mandatory Long Essay per semester. (15 credits)

A Combined Geography student will take a total of THREE core courses, including GEOG 401 (Regional Development) per year, and at least ONE elective course for each semester (15 credits).

A combined geography student writing a long essay will be required to take ONE core course per semester and at least one elective course in the year (15 credits).


FIRST SEMESTER                               

Course Code Course Title Credits
GEOG 450 Long Essay     3
GEOG 451 Regional Development     3
GEOG 453 Geography of the Developing World     3
Elective  Courses     3
GEOG 455 Rural Resources Development: Theories and Policies     3
GEOG 457 Political Geography     3
GEOG 459 Population Studies     3
GEOG 463 Transportation Studies     3
GEOG 465 The City: Origins, Internal Structure and Economic Function     3
GEOG 467 Historical Geography of Africa     3
GEOG 469 Agricultural Land use Theories and Policies     3
GEOG 471 Geography of Tourism     3
GEOG 473 Medical Geography     3
GEOG 475 Industrial Location Theory and Practice     3
GEOG 477 Pedology     3
GEOG 479 Environmental Ecology     3
GEOG 481 Climate and Society (Formerly,  Applied Climatology)     3
GEOG 483 Tropical Geomorphology     3
GEOG 485 Hydrology     3
*GEOG 493 Theories and Analytical Methods for Integrated Disaster Risk Reduction (IDRR)     3



Course Code Course Title Credits
GEOG 452 Techniques of Regional Science     3
GEOG 454 Spatial Organization     3
Elective  Courses     3
GEOG 456 Rural Development Experiences     3
GEOG 458 Population and Development     3
GEOG 462 Transport and the Space Economy     3
GEOG 464 Cities in Economic Development and Problems of  Urban Management     3
GEOG 466 Historical Geography of North Western Europe     3
GEOG 468 Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Developing World     3
GEOG 472 Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Health and Development     3
GEOG 474 Industrialisation in the developing World     3
GEOG 478 Tropical Biogeography     3
GEOG 482 Tourism Development in the Third World     3
GEOG 484  Climatic Change: Arid and Semi arid Lands (Formerly, 

Climatology of Arid and Semi-Arid Lands)

GEOG 486 Applied Geomorphology     3
GEOG 488 Soil Survey     3
GEOG 4922 Environmental Hydrology     3
GEOG 494 Geopolitics of Africa     3
GEOG 496 Policies and Strategies for Integrated Environmental

Health (IEH)  And Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in

Urban Areas

  1. A Geography major student will need a minimum of 78 credits to graduate
  2. A combined major Geography student will need a minimum of 48 credits to graduate.


Course Descriptions


GEOG 111:          Introduction to Physical Geography  

The course is designed to examine the problems of the physical environment including climate, soils and vegetation as a foundation for GEOG 202 and GEOG 301. Specific areas include nature and scope, rocks, weathering and mass wasting, slopes, introduction to soils, Vegetation (types and distributions), and the atmosphere (origin, vertical divisions and composition).


GEOG 112:          Introduction to Human Geography   

The course seeks to expose students to the dominant themes which form important segments of Geography as a discipline. Question such as What is Geography? (what, where, why and when questions) and What is human Geography? (various approaches to the study of Human Geography ± systematic and regional approaches) will be covered. In addition, man and environment interaction  (man as a modifier and the influence of the  environment on man), agriculture in human geography (world agricultural systems, world population ± the history of population growth, world population distribution and key characteristics of population of a…. Ghana)  and the environment (degradation of the environment in the world, Africa and Ghana in particular) will be focused on.


GEOG 211:          Introduction to Geographic Thought  

Topics to be covered include the development of geographic thought from Greek times to the present, the contradictions and shifting positions in the geographic perspective prior to the development of the scientific method, and the contributions of the Greeks, Romans and Moslems to the development of Geographic Thought. Others are the Age of Discovery and its impact on the development of geographic thought, Geography in the seventeenth century, Geography in the eighteenth century, divergent views in the late nineteenth century, including environmental determinism, possibilism and probablilism, as well as Geography and the geographical method and the region and regionalism.


GEOG 213:          Introduction to Weather and Climate  

This is an introductory survey of weather components and processes and their measurements.  It will examine climate elements and their control factors, data aggregation and representation, geographic classification of climatic and vegetation types, scope and purpose of climatology, the atmosphere: structure and composition, Structure of climatological networks, Basic concepts in the study of climatology, weather elements, their measurements and units of statistical aggregation. Physical environmental factors and their controls on weather and climate, as well as representation of climatic data: the Station Model, Global distribution of climates and vegetation will be looked at.


GEOG 212:          Geomorphological Processes and Landforms    

Topics to be treated include earth materials, structure and endogenic processes and forms, origin and mode of occurrence of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, rock forming minerals, tectonic effects on rocks and their landform expressions, faulting and faults; jointing and joint topographic expressions and volcanicity.


GEOG 214:          Principles and Methods of Cartography 

The course is designed to introduce students to the principles and methods of map making and to equip them with the skills for interpreting the features on maps and extracting information from maps. The approach will include practical sessions on map interpretation and measurements and Computer assisted cartography. Students will also be introduced to the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) as a modern method of cartographic data collection.


GEOG 321:         Soils and Biogeography   

This will cover an analysis of world variations and distribution of soils and vegetation and the associated climates as well as the distribution of some animal populations.  Field trips provide local illustrations for factors of soil formation, physical and chemical properties of soils and the soil map of Ghana. In addition factors influencing the global distribution of vegetation, selected vegetation types in the major climatic zones of the world; vegetation and their associated animals will be examined.


GEOG 323:         Regional Geography of Africa (One region outside West Africa)

The course will deal with the physical environment and its challenges, the patterns of human activity and the geographical basis of regional co-operation. Other aspects of the physical environment including geology, soils, relief, climate and vegetation; patterns of economic activity such as mining, agriculture, pastoralism, pransportation, industrialization and trade; population characteristics and distribution and the geographical bases of regional and continental cooperation will be treated.


GEOG 325:         Theory and Practice of Geography 

The course will focus on the scientific method and its adoption in Geography, philosophy and logic in the social sciences, laws, theories and models and their application in geography and the Science of Geography (Is Geography a science).The quantitative revolution and its explanation in geography, the role of laws, theories and models in geography and problems of application wil also be examined.


GEOG 327:            Introduction to Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems


The course will deal with photographic and scanner remote sensing; basic principles of remote sensing; electromagnetic spectrum; the multiband concept of imagery interpretation; photographic remote sensing and its application in urban and rural land use studies.  In addition it will deal with the definition and types of remote sensing; a historical review of the development of environmental remote sensing, the physical basis of remote sensing (the electromagnetic spectrum), aerial photographs, characteristics, types, flying for cover and types, scale, overlaps, stereo-vision, relief displacement; photo evaluation (photo reading, analysis and interpretation); principles of object recognition: shape, size, texture; project procedure (including library search, reconnaissance survey, fieldwork, analysis and recording); application in urban and rural inventories; and principles of Geographic Information Systems.


GEOG 331:          Arid Lands      

We will look at the location and extent of arid and semi-arid lands and bases of delimitation, causes and types of arid lands, the physical background and natural resources of arid lands, problems of occupance of arid lands, and the arid and semi-arid lands of the world and the physical environment and natural resources. Other topics are the population of arid lands; Man versus aridity: early cultures and their adjustments to arid environments.


GEOG 322:         Introduction to Resource Analysis

The course will deal with the growing concern about natural resources, development and the environment within the broad context of the ecology of resource processes and analyses of socioeconomic and environmental implications of natural resources use. Concept and analytical dimensions of resources, the scarcity debate, the role of natural resources in development, Surveys, organization and use of resources information, ecology of the resource processes, natural resources and population relationships, conservation and sustainable development as well as resource policy issues will be treated.


GEOG 324: Regional Geography of West Africa, with Special Reference to Ghana West Africa as a region will be examined, as will physical environmental challenges and the human responses as well as the patterns of economic activity with emphasis on Ghana.  The prospects of access: there will be a detailed study of West Africa as a geographical and political region, and of Ghana in particular, with regard to the following topics: the physical background; population characteristics and distribution; agriculture, pastoralism and forestry; transportation and industrialization.


GEOG 326:          Research Methods

The course will teach the design and formulation of research projects and the methods and procedures for handling data, questionnaire design and coding, data collection techniques and problems and report writing.  Inferential statistics and introduction to multivariate techniques, problem formulation in scientific research the basic requirements of a research proposal, literature review and hypotheses formulation will be covered. Others areas include report writing; sampling theory and methods of sampling; tests of hypothesis and significance; parametric and non-parametric statistics, e.g., chi-square, spearman rank correlation; review of frequency distributions, frequency polygons, histograms and other forms of cartographic representations, e.g., charts and bar graphs,  measures of location and dispersion.


GEOG 328:          Geography of Gender and Development in Africa 

The course looks at gender and the dynamics of socio-economic change within the context of spatial systems as well as the gender-neutral development theory and the concept of feminism in geography as applied to regional patterns of development as countries become more industrialized.  Africa provides the basis for the course, though spatial aspects of development from other countries will be used for comparative purposes: The concept of feminism in technology, women and development; gender and development planning.


GEOG 342:          Climatology                          

The course will examine regional climates and anomalies with particular emphasis on the classification system will be looked at. General circulation: models, principal airmasses, local wind systems; mid-latitude climates: fronts,  cyclones, anticyclones and their associated weather; tropical climates, tropical disturbances and squall lines; the inter-tropical discontinuity (ITD) and weather zones of Ghana and West Africa; water balance climatology and regional classification of climates in detail will also be covered.


GEOG 344:          Geographic Information Systems     

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has become an important integrating component of Geography.  The purpose of this course is to further expose student to the theory and applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS).  The course will build on knowledge gained in Geog. 307 (Introduction to Remote Sensing and GIS), which will be a pre-requisite. The Remote Sensing component of remotely sensed data for incorporation into the GIS database.  The course covers theory and practicals involving laboratory sessions with the objective of giving students a deeper insight into defining and implementing GIS problems in natural and socio-economic resource management. GIS software is introduced for input, analysis and display of spatial data.


GEOG 450:          Long Essay 

This course is spread over 2 semesters. Students are encouraged to conduct an independent research -based study on a topic approved by the Department on the basis of which they will write an essay of not more than 10,000 words.


GEOG 451:          Regional Development    

The course will deal with basic theories of development and under-development and theories of regional development. It will also explore politics and strategies of regional planning and elements of planning theory. The course is essentially comparative but the focus is Ghana and the Third World: the concept of development; theories of regional development; strategies of regional planning; planning theory, regional planning models and development plans.



GEOG 453:          Geography of the Developing World 

The course will focus on concepts, theories and problems of development and underdevelopment; social and economic challenges; external relations and trends in interdependence in the geographical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. The concept and practical issues of development; physical and cultural resources in spatial development; population dynamics; Economic, social and political development within the framework of spatial organization; spatial diffusion theories and application; trends interdependence, international trade and aid will also be explored.


GEOG 455:         Rural Resources Development: Theories and Policies 

The course will cover theoretical concepts and policies of rural resources utilization for development with special reference to Sub-Saharan Africa and provide an overview of rural problems and their inter-related nature and the rationale of rural development. It will also look at rural resources and development defined, resource base for rural development and policy planning and implementation methodologies.


GEOG 457:         Political Geography                           

Topics to be examined in this course The meaning and scope of political geography; elements of political geography; basic principles and key concepts of the interactions between geographical space and political process; formation of states, nature and functions of boundaries; demarcation of administrative areas and constituencies; introduction to the geography of elections and international organizations. The course aims to develop an understanding of the nature of political geography, consider the meanings and interactions of territory and political activity and provide an overview of contemporary work in political geography. The course work will include: the nature of Geography, politics and political geography, the elements of political geography, Approaches to the study of political geography, the nature and functions of boundaries and frontiers, nation, state and nation-state, types of states and governments, the structure of the state and administrative reform, the viability of states, national integration, colonialism and decolonization, Introduction to global geo-political theories, the heartland theory,  sea versus air power, introduction to electoral geography, international organizations:ECOWAS, EAC, SADC, EU, AU, UN etc., neocolonialism and globalization.


GEOG 459:         Population Studies        

The course will examine the concept of organization of space from the point of view of population (i.e. recognition of spatial patterns and dynamics, with population as the focus) and the relevance of the study of population dynamics with special reference to their spatial implications for development.  Examples from both the developed and the developing world will be used to treat an Introduction to population geography, data, spatial measures and mapping, population characteristics (Age, sex, nuptiality, households, urban-rural patterns, socio-economic etc), components of population change, Population distribution, world population growth and distribution


GEOG 463:          Transportation Studies            

The course will deal with transportation and the organization of human society, the theory of transportation development and planning and the utility of specific models, network formation and analysis and introduction to transport economics. It will look at definition of transportation geography and its role and practical importance in the geographical system, covering areas such as the historical development of the various modes of transport, basic concepts and generative forces of transportation, models and theories in transportation geography, traffic census, theories and network analyses, principles of transportation planning and introduction of transport to economics.


GEOG 465:         The City: Origins, Internal Structure and Economic Function                                                                   

The course employs a cross-cultural approach in discussing the broad patterns, trends and dynamics of world urbanization. There will be an analysis of the internal spatial organization of cities with special reference to land identification of the major differences and similarities of urban phenomena between the developed and under-developed world and the relevance of these themes to urban planning: history of world urbanization; internal structure of cities/land use analysis and turban economic analysis.


GEOG 467:         Historical Geography of Africa                      

 The various methodological approaches to Historical Geography and the technical and conceptual advances in the field are examined in relation to spatial analysis.  There is also a critical analysis of the historico-spatial patterns of the Human Geography of Africa from the prehistoric period through to contemporary times.  Northern Africa and Eastern Africa offer specific regions of study in the course. The outlines includes, methodological development in historical geography, temporal explanation in geography, the status of historical geography,  the dynamic of population growth, the development of the agricultural landscape, spatial and economic structures in relation to long-term external influences and development, and an analysis of historico-spatial patterns in Africa.


GEOG 469:         Agricultural Land Use Theories and Policies 

The course will provide an introduction to general agricultural land use theories and policies and definitions of basic terms/concepts. Other topics include problems and issues in agricultural land use and management, factors and basic ideas of agricultural land use, change/evolution of agricultural landcapes, including agriculture-environment-development interrelationships, ideas of Malthus, Boserup and others on the relationship, between population and agricultural land use and their significance  for the development process, concept and measurement of carrying capacity of land, theoretical optimization models of agricultural land use an overview of global agricultural land use policies and agricultural land use policies in Ghana.


GEOG 471:          Geography of Tourism               

The course will deal with the concept of tourism and the tourist, the link between geography and tourism within the framework of resource identification, development and utilization, the role of tourism planning, development and management and socio-economic and environmental effects of tourism. Specific topics include the definition of tourism and a tourist, Geography and tourism, tourism within the framework of systems theory, motivators/determinants of tourism,  impediments to free movement and development of tourism, tourism as a factor of progress in the economy of developed and developing countries, social and physical impacts of tourism on societies and their ecological set-ups, basic tenants of tourism planning, a planning model for tourism, development and management of tourism, and tourism and regional integration.


GEOG 473:          Medical Geography   

The course will focus on the application of geographical concepts and techniques to healthrelated problems and on   Studies of local variations of both human and environmental conditions which are causatively related to human activities. Basically, the course is concerned with describing, explaining and predicting the etiology, occurrence, transmission and effects of disease in spatial variation and patterns.  Relevant illustration will be drawn from both the developed and developing world. The outline includes an introduction to medical geography, methodology, rates, ratios and indicies, ecology of disease causation (agent-host environmental factors), epidemiology (principles and methods, the physical environment and health, types of diseases and their control, and environmental health).


GEOG 475:          Industrial Location Theory and Practice  

The course will explore theories of industrial location and their relevance to the advanced and developing countries:  the various shades of the classical location theory, the behavioural and empirical approaches, the geography of enterprise and the techniques of industrial location analysis, the outline will include the contribution of geographers and economists to industrial location theory, new developments in industrial location theory (including the application of systems concept), techniques of industrial location analysis, techniques for measuring industrial growth and change, industrial location in practice in the advanced market economies and in developing countries, using Africa as example.


GEOG 477:          Pedology                               

This course will deal with the origin of rocks and minerals, their classification and composition, weathering of rocks and minerals ± soil formation, factors affecting soil formation, soil profile and horizon differentiation–as well as concepts of soil as a natural resource and a medium for plant growth and soil classification ± brief studies of the U.S. soil

Taxonomy, UNESCO/FAO soil map of Africa and Ghana. The outline will include the soil and the soil profile, composition of soils, factors of soil formation, physical and chemical properties of soils, the nature and properties of mineral clays, soil water and soil air, soil survey and classification.


GEOG 479:         Environmental Ecology       

This course will examine global and national concerns on the problem of environmental degradation and pollution, from the ecological perspective.  Causes of environmental degradation, solutions for restoring ecological equilibrium and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) techniques will also be dealt with.  Student field visits are essential. The outline includes realms of the physical environment, their general attributes in the unpolluted states, main global and national environmental concerns, their causes and implications, waste environment, global conventions, national environment laws, non-governmental pressure groups and  the conversation versus development debate.


GEOG 481:          Climate and Society

This course critically examines the links between climatic processes and human activities. It

mate and its variability across space and time, and applies this to patterns of human activities. It explores ways in which climate influences human activities and how climate is also modified by humans both intentionally and inadvertently. Critical assessment of future scenarios of climate and human links are also investigated. The outline includes the climate system, climate variability and climate change, climate and agriculture, climate risk & health, climate & urban risk management, climate risk and decision making under uncertainties.


GEOG 483:          Tropical Geomorphology                                 

The course describes the tropical area as a morphogenetic region as well as the zonal morphological processes and forms as modified by the tropical environment. The outline includes the weathering processes and products, deep weathering profiles, laterite, denudational processes, depositional processes, domed and boulder inselbergs, hillslopes and pediments, stream channels, and bioclimatic interruptions.


GEOG 485:         Hydrology                                             

The course is designed to highlight some phenomena and conservation measures necessary for the planning, design and operational phases of water management. The outline includes rudiments of hydrology and hydrological measurements, intensity and frequency of precipitation at a given point, estimating evaporation and evapo-transporation from water surfaces and oils, infiltration: soil moisture, laws governing infiltration, groundwater, types of aquifer, inter-relationship between groundwater and surface water, surface runoff: elementary hydrograph, types of runoff, depth/area/duration relationships, probable maximum precipitation and applications to water management.


 GEOG 493:                   Theories and Analytical Methods for Integrated Disaster Risk

Reduction (IDRR)                      

This course will introduce students to concepts of environmental health, disaster events, and disaster profiling in urban Ghana. It is intended to equip students with a deeper understanding of concepts on environmental health and disaster risk reduction, thus enhancing their ability to appreciate and apply the appropriate methods and tools in assessing EH and DRR in urban Ghana. The course will cover the following topics: Environment and Health Linkages, disaster incidence and prevention, disaster preparedness and mitigation, notions and perceptions around disaster management, the global context of IEH and DRR and an introduction to the tools and methods for assessing urban vulnerability and climate change.


GEOG 452:          Techniques of Regional Science       

Students will be taken through some techniques for analyzing the structure and functions of regions and methods of measuring phenomena of particular interest to regional development. Other aspects of the course include regional science and its relation with Geography, regionalization, regional spatial analysis techniques (measurement of dispersion, location quotient, network analysis, diffusion measurement and analysis, linkage flows, etc.), regional economic analysis (use of input/output tables, shift share analysis, regional multiplier), regional modeling, including introduction to systems theory, operations research and optimization techniques, data base (information system) for regional analysis and sources in Ghana.


GEOG 454:          Spatial Organisation                         

Human society is complex and diverse, comprising different elements which are interlinked in space. This course seeks to explore in detail the various components of these linkages through interactions by various experts in the respective areas. The outline includes the nature and perspective of spatial organization, the concept and factors of location (Spatial characteristics and structure, physical/human resources and location), organization of rural space, (The theory of agricultural location, Structure of land-use in developing countries, land-use in the interdependent societies), spatial patterns of development (urban development trends, central place theory, the theory of industrial location, the growth pole theory, the development of primate cities and their effect on national and regional organization) and spatial interaction (transport systems, role of transport in development, dynamics and population growth, migration and mobility, the nature of spatial diffusion, the theory of diffusion).



GEOG 456:          Rural Development Experiences                   

The course involves an analysis of the experiences of developed and developing worlds in rural resources utilization for better rural development planning, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The outline includes an overview of experiences of selected development in free market countries (USA and another country), experiences of selected developed country with a controlled economy (USSER), experiences of selected Third World countries other than those in Africa (China, India and Cuba), selected case studies from Africa: Gezira; Western and Eastern Nigeria Resettlement Schemes; Ujamaa; Land Reform in Ethiopia; Mampong Valley Integrated Experiment; Damongo Settlement Scheme, etc., History of rural development in Ghana.


GEOG 458:          Population and Development                         

The course provides an overview of the spatial dynamics of human populations with regard to the environment they occupy.  An analysis of the inter-relationships between population, resources, environment and development will be addressed.  The main focus is on Africa and the Developing World in general.  The population-development interrelationships will be examined against the view that development must be for the benefit and enhancement of the quality of life of people.  Consequently, the numbers, spatial distribution and characteristics of the population at any point in time should have an immeasurable impact on the magnitude, trend and pace of development. The outline includes population and development interrelationships, population and resource utilization, population distribution and redistribution policies, population and environment, population and contemporary social issues, population and health, including reproductive health and HIV/AIDS, population, gender and development. population dynamics and different societal groups, e.g., the aged, the youth, adolescents etc., population planning policies and programmes, population estimates and projections.


GEOG 462:          Transportation and the Space Economy  

This course will examine transport and economic development within the regional settings of Africa and North America with special emphasis on Ghanaian and Nigerian situations. The outline includes the general theme of transport and economic development, the development of the transportation system in Africa with special emphasis  on Ghana and Nigeria, the development of the transportation system in North America, a critical appraisal of a model of transport development in under-developed countries, the problem of African land-locked states and accessibility to the sea, transportation development and urbanization, transportation within the urban milieu and contributions of improved transportation to overall societal development.


GEOG 464:         Cities in Economic Development and Problems of Urban Management

 This urban studies course focuses on city systems, rural-urban linkages, regional economic role of cities and problems of urban management.  The relevance of the themes for urban and regional planning is underscored. The major themes are as follows:-urban hierarchy and city systems, (Central Place Theory, Urban primacy, Rank Size Rule or Lognormal Distribution, periodic markets, Central Place System and regional development), regional economic role of cities (Urban Sphere of Influence, Role of Cities in Economic Development, Centre-Periphery Models, Growth Pole Theory and Strategy), Problems of Urban Management (Urban Environment and Health, The Model of Urban Environmental Transition, the Ecological Footprints of Cities, Gender and Environmental Care in the African City, Principles of Urban Planning).


GEOG 466:           Historical Geography of North Western Europe 

The course is concerned mainly with environmental, population and socio-economic interrelationships within North-Western Europe through spatial and historical analysis. The outline includes the changing environment, population dynamics of Europe, Europe and classical development, Agriculture and land-use systems, population and settlement patterns, trade, industry and communication systems.


GEOG 468:         Agricultural Land Use Systems in the Developing World  

This course will examine agricultural land use systems with special reference to their relative sustainability, effects upon the physical environment, and efficiency in food production in the developing world, most especially sub-Saharan Africa. The outline includes the food crisis and underlying causes, traditional systems of agricultural land use, modern agricultural systems and sustainable systems.


GEOG 472:         Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Health and Development 

Development, entailing as it does modifications of existing circumstances, often affects sectors other than those intended by the planner.  The course focuses on aspects of the improvement of health levels through the instrument of development.  Thus the interrelationships among health, population and socio-economic development are examined with examples drawn from both developed and developing countries, with special emphasis on Africa. The outline includes types of medical practices, medical demography: morbidity, mortality, health and development inter-relationships, maternal child health and family planning, psycho-social stress and mental health, as well as spatial analytic methods: data, statistical and mapping techniques and models.


GEOG 474:         Industrialisation in the Developing World  

The focus in this course will be on the process of industrialization in the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America.  A comparison with the industrialization process in the advanced countries will be made.  Special emphasis is on the structure, pattern and processes of industrialization in Africa in general and West Africa and Ghana in particular. The outline includes industrialization in the advanced countries, a brief historical perspective, patterns/processes of industrialization in developing countries: general treatment of opportunities and constraints,  models and strategies of industrialization in developing countries, industrialization in tropical Africa, general characteristic: a detailed treatment of case studies of three countries outside West Africa, industrialization in West Africa: a study of two countries, and industrialization in Ghana.


GEOG 478:         Tropical Biogeography                                      

In this course we will deal with biogeography processes and vegetation development and distribution.  The soil ± vegetation system as a basis for land resource utilization and conservation in the tropics will be examined. The outline includes the tropical forests and savannas, their structure, diversity, productivity and distribution, tropical highland vegetation, the soil-vegetation system and its utilization, the forest savanna gradient in West Africa, and introduction to quadrant techniques for field survey and analysis.


GEOG 482:         Tourism Development in the Third World    

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the various concepts and theories that underlie tourism development in developing countries.  The course also provides insights into some case studies in the various geographical regions within the Third World. The outline includes justification for tourism development in the Third World, paradigms and theories on development that have been associated with Third World tourism development ± diffusionist, depen  spatial distribution, planning and development, case studies on planning and development of tourism resources in other Third World countries, i.e., Tunisia and Bali (Indonesia), the role of governments and national tourism organizations (NTOs).


GEOG 484:          Climatic Change: Arid and Semi Arid Lands  

Climatic change is one of the most important challenges of the twenty-first century. This course is offered at a time when key facts about climate change itself are on firm grounds. Warming is unequivocal. There is very high confidence that the bulk of this warming is caused by human action. The arid and semi-arid lands are some of the most vulnerable regions to climatic change. Using examples from the arid and semi-arid lands, this course will examine technical background to enable students to critically examine arguments being discussed by policy makers and the public at large. The course will include the following topics: overview of global warming, climate as a factor in human history, greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, climate projection, vulnerability and resilience, adaptation in arid and semi-arid lands.


GEOG 486:         Applied Geomorphology       

The course will treat areas such as a definition of applied geomorphology, drainage basin morphometry, the calculation of stream frequency, circuity ratio, elongation ratio, basin relief, ruggedness number, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, graded river, environment and development, dynamics of beach erosion and deposition, wetland management, deep weathering and development issues in hot, humid areas: fadama cultivation in savanna, sahel and desert areas.  Atterberg limits and the behaviour of clay minerals, particle shape and its application to coastal engineering and field studies.


GEOG 488:          Soil Survey                                           

Knowledge of soil survey is relevant to agricultural development. The course therefore focuses on methods of examining, describing and mapping different types of soils. The purpose is to enable the student have basic knowledge and understanding of the characteristics, distribution and agronomic values of various soils. The course covers major types of soil survey methods in Ghana. The outline includes soil survey and types of soil survey, preparation for field work, field work (methods), plotting and assembling of field data, examination and determination of soils in the field, Identification and nomenclature of soil horizons, Soil texture, soil colour, soil consistency, soil reaction organic matter, etc.


GEOG 492:         Environmental Hydrology         

The study focuses on the impact of hydrological processes on the environment: flooding, erosion and sediments, urban drainage, salt water intrusion, drought and drought management and  Environmental aspects of water resource projects


GEOG 494:         Geopolitics of Africa        

The course aims to provide an understanding of the changing political geography of Africa, explain the contemporary geopolitical scene with regard to intra-state and inter-state relations and explore the geographical influences on Africa’s external relations:  pre-colonial polities and state formation in Africa; colonialism and partition; interaction between the geographical environments and political processes and their consequences for the formation, functioning and inter-relations of states in Africa; colonization and de-colonization, regional co-operation and African unity, Africa’sgeopolitical relations; colonial policies and development; patterns of decolonization; nature of African boundaries and related problems; nationalism and PanAfricanism; national integration – centripetal and centrifugal forces; causes of territorial and boundary disputes; settlement of territorial and boundary disputes; regional cooperation and African unity; Africa and globalization.


GEOG 496:          Policies and Strategies for Integrated Environmental Health (IEH) and

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Urban Areas

This course builds on the first semester course (GEOG 443) by expanding the discussions on concepts and methods to include relevant legislation, policies and strategic programmes for IEH and DRR in low income communities in urban Ghana. It will involve field visits to specific communities as a way of testing the models used during class discussions. The course will cover the following topics: global and local contexts of IEH and DRR, institutional framework for IEH and DRR in Ghana, field application of methods and tools for assessing IEH and DRR, vulnerability assessment in urban communities, climate change modeling and strategies for building resilient communities.


Peter N. Djangmah is a multifaceted individual with a passion for education, entrepreneurship, and blogging. With a firm belief in the power of digital education and science, I am affectionately known as the Private Minister of Information. Connect with me
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