Integrated ScienceStudents session



Teaching integrated science requires teaching techniques as much as possible with all necessary documents.

Some Documents you shouldn’t miss when teaching Integrated science are the following

Your Integrated Science Textbooks

The Government Textbook for Integrated Science;  Some of the other Textbooks’ definitions are not accepted by WAEC when Preparing  WASSCE MARKING SCHEME. Always Compar….

A Past Question Book

The Integrated Science GES Syllabus

The Integrated Science WASSCE Syllabus

Using Just the Textbooks can make you over Teach, Non-Sylla …

Using all the Textbooks and documents without the Past Question Book, can make you miss some important things you should pay more attention to during lessons.






 This syllabus was evolved from the teaching syllabus for the Senior High School Integrated  Science issued by the Ghana Education Service in September, 2010.

 Integrated Science seeks to equip the individual with the integrated body of scientific knowledge  and raise the level of scientific literacy of the individuals with comprehensive scientific skills that  enable them to function in the    present technological era.

  Education in science also provides opportunity for the development of positive attitudes and values.


This syllabus seeks to among other things, enable students to:

  • Acquire the skill to solve basic problems within their immediate environment through analysis and experimentation;


  • Keep a proper balance of the diversity of the living and non-living things based on their interconnectedness and repeated patterns of change;


  • Adopt sustainable habits for managing the natural environment for humankind and



  • Use appliances and gadgets effectively with ca lear understanding of their basic operations and underlying principles.


  • Explore, conserve and optimise the use of energy as an important resource for the living world;


  • Adopt a scientific way of life based on pragmatic observation and investigation of phenomena;


  • Search for solutions to problems of life recognizing the interaction of science, technology and other disciplines.




It is presumed that candidates taking the examination must have:


  • Carried out activities relating to rearing of at least one of the following groups of animals:
    • chickens/ducks/turkeys
    • goats/sheep/cattle
    • guinea pigs, rabbits


  • Paid visits to well established farms, and institutions relate agriculture/research/manufacturing to observe scientific work and application of science;


  • Kept practical notebooks on records of individual laboratory and field activities performed.




The examination will consist of three papers: Paper 1, 2 and 3 which must be taken for a  total of 190 marks. Papers 1 and 2 will be taken at a sitting for a duration of  2 1/2 hours.

PAPER 1:        Will be an objective test. It will consist of 50 multiple-choice

questions, all of which should be answered  within 1 hour for 50 marks.


PAPER 2:          Will consist of six essay –type questions. Candidates will be required to answer any four questions within 1 1/2hours.

Each question will carry 20 marks. The total score will be 80 marks.


PAPER 3:        Will consist of four questions on test of practical knowledge, all  of which should be answered within 2 hours for 60 marks.


Questions will be asked on the topics set out in the column headed            “CONTENTS”.

The “ NOTES” are intended to indicate the scope of the questions but they are not to be considered as an exhaustive list of limitations and illustrations.


NOTE: The S.I units will be used for all calculations. However multiples or sub- multiples of the units may also be used.




Introduction to Integrated Science  



1.1 Concept of Integrated


1.2 The scientific method



1.3 Safety precautions in the laboratory


2.          Measurement

2.1 Basic quantities, derived quantities and their units.

Explanation of Science as an interrelated body of knowledge. Carriers in science and technology.


Identification of the problem. Hypothesis formulation. Experimentation. Data collection. Analysis and conclusion.


Safety measures taken in the laboratory and reasons for them.


Basic quantities and units of scientific measurement: Length (m), Mass (kg),Time (s),

Temperature (K), Current (A), Light intensity (cd), Amount of substance (mol).Derived quantities and their units: Volume (m3), Density


2.2 Measuring









2.3 Measurement of density and

relative density




3.      Diversity of living and non-living things

3.1Characteristics of living things






3.2 Classification schemes of living and non-living things.






4.      Matter

4.1        Particulate nature of matter


4.2        Elements, compound, and



4.3        Ionic and covalent compounds

(kgm-3), Velocity(ms-1), Force (N), Work and Energy (J), Quantity of electricity (C), Electric resistance (&!), Potential difference (V), Power (W).

Identification and use of measuring instruments such as ruler, balances, stop watch, thermometer, measuring cylinder, callipers, hydrometer, pipette and burette to

measure in various units. Necessity for


Sources of error


Experiments to determine the density of equal volumes of water and salt solution. Comparison of densities of water and salt solution. Simple experiments of density of regular and irregular objects.



Differences between living and non-living things based on the life processes: movement, nutrition, growth, respiration, excretion, reproduction, irritability should be considered. Detailed treatment of the life processes not required. Explanation of biodiversity



Importance of classification. Contribution of Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Mendeleev. Treatment to include the following levels or ranks: Living things- kingdom, division/ phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. Elements- metals and non metals (1st to 20th elements in the periodic table).


Atoms, molecules, ions, atomic structure.



Differences between elements, compounds and mixtures.



Ionic and covalent bond formation.

Characteristic properties of ionic and covalent compounds.

IUPAC  names of common compounds.






4.4 Atomic number, mass number, isotopes and relative atomic mass of given elements


4.5 Mole, molar mass and formula mass






4.6 Preparation of solutions



5.      Cells

5.1        Plant and animal cells



5.2        Types of plant and animal cells

(Specialised cells)




6.      Rocks


6.1        Types, formation and characteristics of rocks.


6.2        Weathering of rocks






7.      Acids, bases, and salts

7.1        Simple definition of acids, bases,



7.2        Physical and chemical properties of acids, bases and salts





Relative atomic masses should be explained using the periodic table.

Carbon-12 isotope should be mentioned as reference scale.


The mole as unit of the physical quantity; amount of substance. Mention should be made of Avogadro‟s number. Calculation of formula mass and molar mass using relative atomic masses. Calculation of amount of substance in moles given its mass.


Preparation of standard solution of NaOH, HCl, NaCl and sugar. Dilution of standard solution.



Structure and function of plant and animal cells. Drawing and labelling required.


Red blood cell, nerve cell, leaf epidermal cell, sperm cell, leaf palisade cells, lymphocyte and phagocyte. Functions of cell organelles required.





Formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks and their characteristics.


Physical, biological and chemical weathering of rocks. Explanation of the effect of hydration, hydrolysis, carbonation and oxidation on rocks is required.


Definition of acids and bases in terms of proton transfer (Bronsted- Lowry concept).




Properties and uses of acids, bases and salts. Description of laboratory preparation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and ammonia gases. Test for hydrogen, carbon dioxide and ammonia gases.


7.3 Examples of chemical substances  




















classified as acids, bases or salts

7.4 Methods of preparation of salts

7.5 Acid-base indicators

7.6 Determination of pH of a given solutions.

Soil conservation

8.1 Principles of soil and water conservation

8.2 Classification of soil nutrients

8.3 Functions and deficiency symptoms of nutrients

8.4 Maintenance of

soil fertility

8.5 Organic and inorganic fertilizers

8.6 Depletion of soil resources

Simple chemical tests to classify chemical substances as acids, bases, or salts.



Preparation of salts using the following methods: neutralization, precipitation, acid + salt, and  acid + metal.

Description of the colours developed by phenolphthalein, litmus and methyl orange in dilute acids and dilute bases.


The nature and use of the universal indicator and pH metre. Determination of soil pH is required.


Explanation of the concept of soil conservation. Description of activities to conserve soil water and maintain soil fertility; irrigation, mulching, addition of organic matter or crop rotation.


Macro (major)nutrients; nitrogen (N), potassium(K), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca),magnesium (Mg),  sulphur (S).

Micro (minor)nutrients: boron(B), zinc(Zn) molybdenum(Mo), manganese(Mn), copper(Cu), chlorine(Cl), iron(Fe).


Description of the deficiency symptoms of the following nutrients in plants: nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, mangenese and iron.



Application of organic and  inorganic  manures/ fertilizers, crop rotation, cover cropping, liming, and  green manuring.



Identification and classification of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Methods of applying fertilizers.


Factors which lead to the depletion of soil resources: erosion, overgrazing, poor farming methods, dumping of non-biodegradable waste on land, improper

irrigation and drainage practices, surface mining and quarrying, deforestation, and excessive use of fertilizer.


9.        Water

9.1           Physical and chemical properties of water





9.2           Hardness and softness of water.





9.3           Treatment of water for public



10.    Metals and non-metals

10.1       Classification of materials





10.2       Uses of metals, semi-metals and non-metals


10.3       Alloys







11.    Exploitation of minerals





12.    Rusting

12.1       Process of rusting






12.2       Prevention of rusting


Experiments to  determine/ demonstrate:

(i)      boiling point of water.

(ii)    the solvent action of water on a variety of substances.

(iii)  presence of dissolved substances (iv) polar nature of water.

Uses of water.


Advantages and disadvantages of hard and soft water. Causes of hardness of water (Ca++, Mg++, Fe++ ions). Softening hard water (addition of washing soda, ion exchange, boiling and distillation).


Steps involved in the treatment of water for public consumption.



Classification of materials into metals, semi-metals (metalloids), and non-metals. Physical properties of metals, semi-metals and non-metals under conductivity, luster, malleability, ductility, sonority, density, melting point and tensile strength.


Uses of the following elements: Al, Cu,

Fe, Au, C, O2, N2.  Application of semi-metals.


Examples of alloys and their constituent elements (steel, bronze, brass).Uses of alloys. Advantages of alloys in manufacture of certain household items.



Exploitation of the following minerals in Ghana: Bauxite, diamond, gold, crude oil and kaolin. Negative impact of exploitation of minerals mentioned and how to minimize the effect.



Conditions necessary for rusting.

Experiments to show that air and water are necessary for rusting. Experiments to show that salt, dilute acid, dilute base and heat affect the rate of rusting in iron.


Methods of preventing rusting: oiling/ greasing, painting, galvanizing, tin-coating, electroplating, cathode protection and




13.    Organic and inorganic compounds







13.1    Classification of chemicals as organic and inorganic


13.2    Neutralization And esterterification


13.3    Petrochemicals










1.         Air movement

1.1    Land and sea breeze



1.2    Types of air masses and their movement


1.3    Effect of moving air







2.         Nitrogen cycle

2.1    Importance

keeping the metal dry. Effectiveness of the various methods of preventing rusting. Items in the home that undergo rusting.


Hydrocarbons (first four members in each group), alkanols (methanol, ethanol, propanol), alkanoic acids (first two

members), alkanoates (first two members), fats and oils. Functional groups, properties and uses of organic compounds.


Differences between organic and inorganic compounds. Importance of organic chemistry in industrialization.



Differences between neutralization and esterification. Equations representing neutralization and esterification reactions.



Sources, application and effects of petrochemicals on the environment.

The refinery of crude oil. Uses of petrochemical such as plastics, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.




Explanation of formation of land and sea breezes. Demonstration of convectional currents using smoke-box and heated water with crystals of KMnO4.


Trade winds: Easterlies and Westerlies. Description of the direction of movement of major air masses on the earth‟s surface.


Differences between air masses and storm. Effect of moving air masses: spread of pollutants and effect on climate. Precautions against effects of storms.

Use of the future‟s wheel to trace effects of spread of pollutants by air masses required. Tornados, hurricanes, typhoons should be mentioned.

Drawing and description of the nitrogen cycle

Importance of the nitrogen cycle to plants and


3.      Hydrological cycle

3.1      Distribution of earth‟s water





3.2      Hydrological cycle



3.3      Sources of water




3.4      Effects of water


3.5      Water conservation




4.      Life cycles of pests and parasites

4.1      Types of pests and parasites







4.2      Life cycles of some pests and parasites of human, plants

and farm animals




5.      Crop production

5.1      General principles of crop production



5.2      Production of crops



Location of earth‟s water (groundwater and surface water) and how much of it is available for human use. Percentage distribution of water on the earth‟s surface to be mentioned.


Processes involved in the hydrological cycle using appropriate diagrams. Relevance of hydrological cycle to plants and animals.

Main sources of water contamination: domestic waste, trade waste, industrial waste, radioactive waste, and „special‟ waste such as waste from hospital.


Water-washed, water-based and insect- based  carrier diseases


Household water treatment, waste water treatment, safe water storage, modern and traditional rainwater harvesting systems.



Distinguish between pests and parasites.

Common pests of humans and farm animals (cockroach, housefly, tsetsefly, and mosquito) common endoparasites, tapeworm, liver fluke and round worm), common ectoparasites (tick, bed bug louse, flea, mite). Common pests and parasites of plants (rice and maize weevils, mistletoe, dodder and cassytha beetle and stem borers.


Life cycles of the following: an endoparasite

(tape worm, and guinea worm), pest of humans

[Anopheles mosquito] malaria parasite (Plasmodium), a crop pest (weevil). Control methods of the pests and parasites are required.



Selection of appropriate varieties, site selection and land preparation, methods of propagation and planting methods, cultural practices, pest and disease control, harvesting, processing, storage and marketing.


Application of all crop production mentioned in 5.1 to produce a crop, harvest, generate new planting materials, keep records and market.




Precautions against post harvest losses. Production should be limited to the following crops: vegetables (okro/lettuce/carrot); cereals (maize/millet); legumes (cowpea/groundnut); root crop (cassava); stem tuber (yam).






6.          General principles of farm animal production:

6.1  Main activities involved in farm animal production


6.2  Ruminant production





6.3  Production of non-ruminant





1.    Skeletal system

1.1      The mammalian skeleton




2.    Reproduction and growth in plants

2.1      Structure of flowers






2.2      Pollination and fertilization



2.3      Fruits



2.4      Seeds




2.5      Seeds and fruits

Selection of suitable breeds, choice of management system, breeding systems and care of the young, management practices including animal health care and feeding, finishing, processing and marketing of produce.



Types of breeds and their characteristics, management practices, breeding systems, common pests and diseases and marketing of products. Production should be limited to cattle, goats and sheep.


Main activities outlined in  6.1 to produce a non-ruminant farm animal. Production limited to poultry, pigs and rabbits.


Major parts and functions of the mammalian skeleton. Axial skeleton: skull and vertebral column. Appendicular skeleton: limbs and the limb girdles. Types of joints. Detailed treatment of the individual bones not required.


Parts of a flower and variation in flower structure. Examination of complete flower and half flower with free parts. Bi-sexual flower ( Flamboyant or Pride of Barbados or Hibiscus sp.). Uni-sexual flower with free parts ( water melon, gourd and pawpaw). Drawing and labelling of complete and half flower required.


Processes of pollination and fertilization. Adaptations of flowers for pollination required.  Formation of fruits and seeds.


Classification of fruits into dry fruits and fleshy or succulent fruits.


Seed structure: endospermous

(monocotyledon) and non- endospermous

(dicotyledon)seeds. Functions of parts of seeds.






2.6 Seed germination




2.7 Vegetative (Asexual) reproduction in plants



3.    Respiratory system





3.1    Aerobic and anaerobic



3.2    Structure and functions of the respiratory

system in mammals


3.3    Inhalation and exhalation


3.4    Problems and disorders of the respiratory



3.5    Exchange of respiratory gases in plants.




4.    Food and nutrition

4.1    Classes of food and food substances

Structure of seeds/ fruits and how they are adapted to their mode of dispersal. Agents of dispersal. Explosive mechanism in fruits of Balsam and Pride of Barbados. Advantages and disadvantages of seed and fruit dispersal.


The process and conditions for germination. Types of germination: hypogeal and epigeal.


Formation of new plants from corms, bulbs, setts, rhizomes, cuttings, stolons, runners. Distinction between budding and grafting. Importance of the methods of vegetative propagation.


Explanation of respiration and how energy is released from food substances for living organisms. Importance of respiration to living organisms.


Distinction between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.



Identification of the respiratory organs of the respiratory system. Functions of the trachea, lungs, ribs, intercostal muscles and diaphragm.



Mechanisms of inhalation and exhalation.



Lung cancer, asthma, tuberculosis, whooping cough and pneumonia.

Prevention and control of these problems and disorders.


Description of how respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon(IV)oxide ) are taken in and out of plants. Importance of cell (tissue) respiration. Glycolysis and Kreb‟s cycle not required.



Classes of food and food substance and their importance:carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, mineral salts and water. Importance of balanced diet. Food test for starch protein and lipids.


4.2 Malnutrition






4.3 Food

fortification and enrichment


4.4 Health benefits of water


5.          Dentition, feeding and digestion in mammals


5.1    Structure of different types of teeth in relation to their



5.2    Care of teeth in humans


5.3    Digestive system of



6.          Transport: Diffusion, osmosis and plasmolysis.







7.          Excretory system



7.1    Excretory organs




7.2    Disorders of urinary systems

in humans



8.          Reproductive system


Explanation of malnutrition and its effects. Relationship between diet and certain diseases – night blindness, high blood pressure, diabetes,

obesity, lactose intolerance, and

Kwashiorkor.Importance of roughage.



The essence of food fortication and enrichment.

Determination of body mass index (BMI)



The importance of water to the human body.







Structure and functions of the teeth.

Drawing and labelling of a vertical section of a typical tooth. Differences in dentition in humans and other mammals in relation to diet.



Proper ways of caring for the teeth to prevent dental problems.


Structure and functions of digestive systems in humans.



Explanation of diffusion, osmosis, and plasmolysis. Simple experiments to demonstrate diffusion in air and in liquids; osmosis in living tissue and in non-living tissue. Examples of diffusion and osmosis in nature.




Explanation of excretion. Distinction between excretion and egestion.


Excretory organs ( lungs, skin, liver and kidney). Elimination of products from the body. Structure of the skin and the kidneys.


Bed wetting, urine retention, kidney stone prostate and their remedies.


and growth in




8.1 Mammalian reproductive system



8.2 Male and female Circumcision


8.3 Fertilization, development of the zygote and birth in humans.



8.4 The process of birth and care

for the young


8.5 Problems associated with reproduction in



8.6 Sexually transmitted infections




8.7 Phases of growth and development











9.    The circulatory system

9.1 The structure and functions of the circulatory system of humans






Structure and function of male and female reproductive systems.



Advantages and disadvantages circumcision.



The process of fertilization, development of zygote (pregnancy) and birth. Formation of twins: identical, fraternal, and siamese. Details of cell division and anatomy of the embryo not required.


The process of birth in mammals, including pre-natal, post-natal and parental care.


Causes and effects of miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, impotence, fibroid, disease infections and ovarian cyst.



Types: HIV/ AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, candidiasis, herpes, chlamydia and their mode of transmission. Effects of STI‟s on the health and reproduction in humans.


Physical and behavioural changes associated with each phase of human development: losing milk teeth and development of permanent teeth, increase in mass, height, development of secondary sexual characters, e.g. menstruation in girls (pre-menstrual syndrome in some women- accompanied by violent moods or depression), wet dreams in boys. Changes in old age should include menopause and its associated problems.



The flow of blood through the heart, the lungs and the body of humans. Functions of the heart, the veins and the arteries in the circulatory system . Detailed structure of cellular components of the blood vessels not required.



9.2 Composition and

functions of blood




9.3 Disorders associated with the blood and the blood circulatory



10.      Nervous system

10.1    Structure and

the function of nervous





10.2    Causes and effects of damage to the central nervous



10.3    Voluntary and involuntary




10.4    Endocrine system and its functions






1. Forms of energy and energy transformation



The structure of blood cells. Functions of blood and blood circulatory system.




High blood pressure, low blood pressure and hole-in- heart, leukemia, anaemia.





Parts of the brain and their functions:

fore-brain (cerebrum), mid-brain

(cerebellum), hind-brain (medulla oblongata). The spinal cord as part of the central nervous system. Details of electrical and chemical nature of impulse transmission not required.



Accidents, diseases, drug abuse and depression.






Distinction between voluntary and involuntary actions. Importance of reflex action. The reflex arc.




Glands producing hormones, normal functions of hormones and its effects of overproduction and underproduction. The role of thyroxin, adrenaline, testosterone, oestrogen and insulin. Importance of iodated salt.




Illustrations with flow charts to show the following energy transformations: solar energy to chemical in photosynthesis, Chemical energy to electrical energy in voltaic cells, solar energy to electrical energy in solar cells, chemical energy in fossil fuel into thermal energy/ electrical energy, potential energy to kinetic energy in falling object, electrical energy to light




1.1 Conservation of energy and efficiency of energy conversion






2.    Solar energy

2.1    Uses of solar energy




2.2    Application of solar energy






3.    Photosynthesis

3.1    The process of photosynthesis




3.2    Conversion of light energy to chemical




4.    Electronics

4.1    Claasification of solid materials into conductors, semiconductors and insulators


4.2    Behaviour of discrete

electronic components

energy in bulbs, chemical energy is released from glucose during cellular respiration.


Explanation of the principle of conservation of energy. Demonstration of the principle of transformation by considering the transformation of potential energy to kinetic energy using a falling object.

Explanation of efficiency using the expression:

E =  energy output  x 100% energy input


The main applications of solar energy: generating electricity, drying materials and heating substances.


Practical activities to demonstrate the application of solar energy to: dry clothes, heat water for bathing, dry crops for preservation, cook ( boil an egg).

Advantages of solar energy over the use of fossil fuels as source of energy.


Conditions of photosynthesis: light, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide and water. Experiments to show the necessity of light, chlorophyll and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.


Equations to show how light energy is trapped during the process of photosynthesis and converted to glucose.

Test for starch in food and leaf.




Classify solid materials into conductors, semiconductors and insulators. P-type and N- type semiconductors. Behaviour of P.N junction diode in a d.c and a.c electronic circuit. Explanation of rectification.



A simple electronic circuit comprising a.c and d.c. source, a resistor and a Light

Emitting Diode (LED) in series. Behaviourof the

LED when: the switch is closed, switch is opened, resistor is replaced with capacitor, capacitor is replaced with inductor   or




4.3 Transistor and its uses






4.4 Amplifer



5.      Electrical energy

5.1    Nature and source of static and current





5.2    Electric circuits






5.3    Resistance(R), current (I), potential difference (V), and power (P).



5.4    Electric power generation





5.5    Power transmission





6.      Sound energy

6.1    Sources of sound

coil. Repetition of experiment by replacing     the d.c. source wih an a.c. source.


Observe an NPN or PNP Transistor and identify the emitter, the base and the collector.

The use of transistor as a switch. Behaviour of NPN transistor in circuit with the base at the junction of two resisitors,its collector at the battery and an LED connected to the emitter.


Application of transistor as an amplifier.



Explanation of the formation of lighting based on electrostatics. Protection of buildings and installations with lightning arrestors. Sources of static and current electricity.

Difference between a.c and d.c and their limitations.


Drawing of electric circuit and the functions of each component. Advantages and disadvantages of the components of circuit in series and parallel.



Simple calculation of resistance, current, potential difference using the Ohm‟s law. Simple calculation for electric power. Importance of power ratings and power rationing. Efficient use of electric appliances.


Sources of electric power generation: Hydro, thermal, nuclear, solar, wind, tidal and biogas. Basic principles underlying the production of electricity e.g. relative motion between a coil and a magnet.


The gadgets and processes involved in the transmission of power: step-up and step-down transformers, wiring a plug, household wiring, stabilizers, fuses and earthing.


Production of sound from different instruments(pipes, rods or strings and percussions). Nature of sound: velocity, reflection and refraction. Differences in velocity of sound in different media (gas, liquid, solid,






6.2 Musical notes

and noise





6.3 The human ear




7.        Light energy

7.1    Reflection and refraction of light


7.2    The mammalian eye



7.3    Dispersion of light


7.4Primary and secondary





7.5 Electromagnetic spectrum




8.        Heat energy

8.1    Nature and sources of heat




8.2    Modes of heat transfer






8.3    Temperature

and vacuum). Formation of echoes.

Determination of the velocity of sound is not required.



Classification of different sounds as noise or musical notes (Distinction between musical notes and noise). Explanation of pitch, loudness and quality of musical notes.


Identification of parts of the human ear and description of their functions.

The importance of ear muffs.



Explanation of reflection and refraction of light. Characteristics of images formed by plane mirror.


Structure and functions of the parts of the mammalian eye. Eye defects, causes and their correction using the appropriate lenses.


Explanation of dispersion of light.

Formation of rainbow.


Distinction between primary (red, green, blue) and secondary (yellow, violet, indigo, orange) colours. Demonstration of the behaviour of objects under different coloured lights.


Explanation of electromagnetic spectrum. Application of each component in the spectrum. Calculation and detailed treatment not required.



Explanation of why heat is a form of energy. Sources of heat energy.



Demonstration of the rate of flow of heat in a metal bar of different materials.

Applications of conduction, convection, and radiation ( e.g. vacuum flask and ventilation).


Definition of temperature. Concept of













8.4 Thermal expansion





8.5 Change of state of matter









9.    Nuclear energy

9.1    Radioactivity




9.2    Radioisotopes





9.3    Uses of nuclear energy


9.4    Protection from the

effects of



9.5Nuclear waste disposal





thermal equilibrium between  bodies.

Units: degree Celsius(oC) and kelvin(K) in which temperature is expressed. Fahrenheit should be mentioned. Uses and limitations of different types of thermometers e.g. liquid-in- glass (alcohol and mercury), gas, resistance thermometers. Advantages and disadvantages of mercury and alcohol as thermometric liquids. Clinical thermometer. Thermostat and how it works.


The ball and ring experiment to show that a body expands when heated. Applications of  expansion e.g. thermostats, sagging of electric cable, bursting of inflated hot lorry tyres.


Explanation of how heat causes change of state of matter. Latent heat. Distinction between latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization. Evaporation.

Application of principles of evaporation in heat reduction e.g. regulation of body temperature by the skin, and cooling of water in  local clay water pots.



Causes of nuclear instability and how they emit radiation to become stable. Types of radiation (alpha and beta particles, and gamma rays).


The nature, production and use of radioisotopes: food preservation, sterilization of equipment, treatment of diseases, pest control and crop improvement.


Uses of nuclear energy e.g. in the production of electricity.


Harmful effects of radioactivity and how to protect people from the effects e.g. atomic bombs.



Problems associated with the disposal of nuclear waste.



1.        Ecosystem

1.1    Basic ecological



1.2    Types of ecosystem and their










1.3    Food chain

and  food web






2.        Atmosphere and climate change

2.1    Regions of atmosphere






2.2    Human

activities and

their effects on

the atmosphere



2.3    Atmospheric pollutants





2.4    Green house





Explanation of ecological terms: ecosystem, species, population, ecology, ecosphere and community.


Natural ecosystem: fresh water, marine, estuarine, lake, rainforest, savanna and desert. Artificial ecosystem: farmland,man-made lake, roads. Components of ecosystem: biotic/ living (plants and animals) and abiotic/ non- living(soil, air, and water). Effects of the components on each other. Ecological factors: biotic (predation and competition) and abiotic (climatic factors, salinity, altitude and slope of land) Appropriateness of instruments used to measure  abiotic factors.


Explanation of food chain and food web. Identification of components of food chain and food web: producers (green plants), primary consumers ( herbivores), secondary consumers (carnivores). Decomposers should be mentioned.


Layers of the atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Description of the characteristics of each layer in terms of thickness, temperature, air quality and composition,  pressure and support for human activities.



Effects of human activities on the atmosphere: air transport, defence, industrialization and agriculture.




Sources and effects of the following major pollutants: oxides of lead, nitrogen and sulphur; ozone, halons (carbon and halogen compounds).



Explanation of „greenhouse‟ and its effect: Global warming and climate change. Possible factors to address the problem of global warming. Greenhouse



2.5 Ozone layer






2.6 Acid rain





3.      Infection and diseases

3.1    Causes of diseases





3.2    Common diseases






4.      Magnetism

4.1    Magnetic and non- magnetic materials







4.2    Magnetic field





4.3    Magnetization and





5.      Force, motion, and pressure

5.1    Force

gases e.g. carbon (IV)oxide and methane.


Ozone layer and how it protects living

organisms. Causes and effects of the depletion of the ozone layer. Sources and effects of CFCs on the ozone layer.



Identification of acidic pollutants which cause acid rain. The effects of acid rain on the environment ( damage to buildings, paints forests etc).




Pathogenic: bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa and  rickettsia. Non-pathogenic: nutritional, genetic, stress conditions,and poor sanitation.



Modes of transmission, symptoms, methods of prevention and control of common diseases ( air borne, water related, insect borne, food contaminated, nutrition, sexually transmitted, communicable, zoonotic diseases).



Classification of various kinds of materials as magnetic and non-magnetic. Permanent and temporary magnets. The use of magnetism the following gadgets: telephone earpiece, loud speakers, microphones, magnetic compass, generation of electricity, fridge doors, etc.


Explanation of magnetic field.

Demonstration of magnetic fields around a bar magnet using compressor or iron fillings.



Processes of magnetization and demagnetization. The production and use of electromagnets. Complete demagnetization of permanent magnet.




Explanation of the various types of forces: frictional, viscous, gravitational, weight,





5.2 Archimedes

Principle and law of flotation



5.3 Distance, displacement,

speed, velocity, momentum, acceleration


5.5 Stability of objects










5.6 Pressure




6.    Safety in the community

6.1    Safe use of appliances in

the home






6.2    First aid methods




6.3    Hazardous substances

electrostatic, magnetic, upthrust, tension and push / pull.



Explanation of the Archimedes Principle and law of flotation. Explanation of the following phenomena: the flight of birds and flotation of boats.


Definition of the terms: distance,

displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, and momentum. Simple calculations required




Explanation of centre of gravity. Determination of centre of gravity of rectangular, triangular, and irregular shaped cardboards using the knife edge. Types of equilibrium: stable, unstable, neutral equilibrium. Stability based on the following activities: Demonstration of the three types of stability using a cone on a flat surface. Effect of loading a vehicle on the top carrier or on the base carrier on the stability of the vehicle.


Definition of pressure. Effects of pressure in solids, in liquids and in gases (use of bicycle pump, hydraulics, siphons and water pumps).




Proper use and handling of household appliances to prevent accidents at home: avoidance of overloading of electric sockets, extreme care in using the heating coil in metal/ plastic containers,

use of gloves. Precautionary measures in preventing accidents in the home.



Demonstration of the following using models: mouth-to-mouth resuscitation method, methods of extinguishing different fires, treatment of burns, cuts and electric shocks.


Possible hazards that can occur in working environment e.g. dust, fumes, toxic substance, corrosive substances, fire, food contamination, harmful radiation (X-rays), poisonous substances from heated or frozen plastics. Effects of hazardous substances on human body, e.g. blindness, burns, nausea, vomiting, and allergies.










hazards in the




6.5 Roles of health service



Foods and

Drugs Board,

Ghana Health

Service, Red

Cross, Red


EPA, Ghana Standards


Blue Cross


7.    Variation and inheritance

7.1    Chromosomes and genes









7.2    Variation






7.3    Sex determination and sex-linked characters


Appraisal of the adequacy of the various hazards, warning labels on containers and other places. Techniques involved in preventing fire due to electrical and chemical causes, and bush fires.


Community hazards: diseases, pests and parasites outbreak, insanitary conditions, traffic problems in towns and cities, pollution problems and waste generation.


Functions of health organizations such as public health and sanitation, public health education, proper siting of refuse dumps, provision of waste disposal facilities, and provision of public toilets. Factors that promote public health. Importance of proper sanitation in diseases control. Efficient town planning and village planning systems, places of garbage disposal, good clean roads and street connections.








Chromosomes as bearers of genes/ hereditary materials and recessive and dominant characters; genotype and phenotype. Inheritance of a single pair of contrasting characters e.g height (tallness and shortness) to second filial generation. Simple treatment of Mendel‟s first law of inheritance. Application of the sequence of Inheritance with respect to cloning of stem cells. DNA Test. Heritable and non-heritable characteristics in human.


Explanation of variation. Causes and consequences of variation: Mutation should be mentioned as one of the causes of variation e.g. resistance of some organisms  to  drugs  or  chemicals, albinism in humans.


Explanation of sex determination at fertilization. Effects of sex preference on family relationship. Sex- linked characters.



7.4 Blood groups and Rhesus






7.5 Sickle cell gene and Sickle cell anaemia


8.      Work and machines

8.1        Work, energy and power


8.2        Simple







8.3        Friction




9.      Endogenous technology







9.1        Small scale industries







10.  Biotechnology



10.1    Genetic engineering



10.2    Tissue



Types of blood groups and Rhesus factor and their importance for marriage, blood transfusion and paternity test. Inheritance of blood groups and Rhesus factor. Problems in marriage due to incompatibility Rh-factor and how to avoid these problems.


Inheritance of sickle cell gene. Acquisition of sickle cell anaemia. Management of sickle cell anaemia.


Definition of work, energy and power. Simple calculations required.



Identification of simple machines such as levers, pulleys, wheels, and axle and inclined planes. Classes of levers should be mentioned. Explanation of mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency of machines. Simple calculations required.


Definition of friction, effects of friction and methods of reducing friction.

Advantages and disadvantages of friction.


Explanation of endogenous technology. Effects of modern technology on the development of endogenous technolog.

Inter-dependence of science and technology.

Distinction between science and technology. Significance of science and technology to the development of society.


Small scale industries: raw materials and equipment. Scientific principles underlying the following small scale industries: soap production, salt making, palm oil production, bread making, and yogurt production.



Explanation of biotechnology. Examples of industries based on biotechnology.


Explanation of genetic engineering. Application in medicine, agriculture, food processing.

culture Explanation of tissue culture. Importance of tissue culture in agriculture.


Students session

Integrated Science Lessons SHS



Peter N. Djangmah is a multifaceted individual with a passion for education, entrepreneurship, and blogging. With a firm belief in the power of digital education and science, I am affectionately known as the Private Minister of Information. Connect with me
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Alhassan faikatu
8 months ago

Hi sir Koo

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