The Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) grading system is a method used by many educational institutions to assess and represent a student’s academic performance. It is a numerical representation of a student’s overall academic achievement, calculated based on the grades or grade points earned in their courses. Here’s a general overview of how the CGPA system typically works:

Grading Scale: The grading scale used may vary from one institution to another, but it is commonly based on a 4.0 scale in the United States and Canada, where letter grades are assigned grade points as follows:
A: 4.0
A-: 3.7
B+: 3.3
B: 3.0
B-: 2.7
C+: 2.3
C: 2.0
C-: 1.7
D+: 1.3
D: 1.0
F: 0.0

Grade Points: Each course a student takes is assigned a grade (usually in letter form, e.g., A, B, C) that corresponds to a specific grade point on the scale.

Credit Hours: Courses also have a specified number of credit hours, which represent the amount of work and time required for that course. For example, a typical course might be worth 3 credit hours.

Calculation of CGPA: To calculate the CGPA, you multiply the grade points earned in each course by the course’s credit hours, sum these values for all courses, and then divide by the total credit hours. The formula is as follows:

CGPA = (Σ(GP x CH)) / ΣCH

Where:
CGPA is the Cumulative Grade Point Average.
GP is the grade point earned for a specific course.
CH is the credit hours for that course.
Σ denotes the sum of values for all courses.

 Total (CP×GP) GPA=Total (CP) = =3.2 The sum of the product of credit points for a course (the course weighting) and the grade point for the course divided by the sum of the course weightings for all courses on the semester. In computing the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) all the courses are treated as if they were taken in one semester. Note: Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is not the same as the average of GPAs for the various semesters CGPA=

### Degree Classification

Undergraduate degree programmes are classified according to the candidate’s Cumulative Grade Point Average [CGPA]. The classifications are as follows:

CLASS DESIGNATION C.G.P.A.
1st Class 3.6 – 4.0
2nd Class [Upper Division] 3.0 – 3.5
2nd Class [Lower Division] 2.5 – 2.9
3rd Class Division 2.0 – 2.4
Pass 1.0 – 1.9

Range: The CGPA typically falls on a scale, often from 0.0 to 4.0, but this can vary depending on the institution’s grading scale.

The CGPA is a useful way to gauge a student’s overall academic performance over multiple semesters or years. It provides a standardized measure that allows for easy comparison of academic achievements. Some institutions may also use different grading scales, such as a 10.0 scale, but the basic principle of calculating the CGPA remains the same.

It’s important to note that grading systems can differ by country and educational system, so the specific scale and calculation method may vary. Students should always refer to their institution’s guidelines for the exact details of how CGPA is calculated in their particular system.

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